Diabetes During and Beyond Pregnancy
Diabetes in pregnancy, including gestational diabetes (GDM) and pre-existing diabetes, imposes significant and adverse influences on maternal health as well as fetal development and child health. In the mother, GDM usually resolves after pregnancy unless it represents previously undiagnosed type 2 diabetes which is first recognized during pregnancy. GDM is linked to substantially increased risk for developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disorders. Despite the fact that GDM has been acknowledged as a subtype of diabetes for decades, appropriate cutoff points and procedures for screening and diagnosis are still under debate. Beyond the traditional use of insulin (basal-bolus or insulin pump therapy), oral hypoglycemic agents are introduced as new options in clinical management of GDM and pre-existing diabetes, but their impact on pregnancy outcomes and long-term health effects for both mothers and their offspring remains unclear. In recent years, the utility of omics techniques, such as genomics, epigenomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and microbiome, has advanced our knowledge on the etiology, prediction and “precision medicine” of gestational diabetes.
Panceratic Disorder and Therapy