Intravenous general anesthetics

Image Intravenous general anesthetics Intravenously-delivered general anesthetics are typically small and highly lipophilic molecules. These characteristics facilitate their rapid preferential distribution into the brain and spinal cord, which are both highly vascularized and lipophilic. It is here where the actions of these drugs lead to general anesthesia induction. Elimination Following distribution into the central nervous system (CNS), the anesthetic drug then diffuses out of the CNS into the muscles and viscera, followed by adi... Read More

Modelling Risk and Decisions Analysis

Image Modelling Risk and Decisions Analysis Risks and their management are an integral part of decision making in the 21st century. A decision framework should allow groups of stakeholders to evaluate multiple-objective decisions and analyze trade-offs of various alternatives/scenarios/decision to be considered. However, formulating these alternatives, objectives, and trade-offs involves working with both facts (the uncertain state of the “world” one models) and values (what one deems important). Ideally, the facts and the values should be kept separate even... Read More

Pathology of asthma

Image Pathology of asthma Asthma is a serious health and socioeconomic issue all over the world, affecting more than 300 million individuals. The disease is considered as an inflammatory disease in the airway, leading to airway hyperresponsiveness, obstruction, mucus hyper-production and airway wall remodeling. The presence of airway inflammation in asthmatic patients has been found in the nineteenth century. As the information in patients with asthma increase, paradigm change in immunology and molecular biology have resulted in an extensive evaluation of inflammatory c... Read More

Clinical Toxicology offers rapid peer review process for authors

Image Journal of Clinical Toxicology - Open Access using online manuscript submission, review and tracking systems of OMICS Group for quality and quick review processing.OMICS Group is using Online Review and Editorial Tracking Systems for quality review process. Editorial Tracking System is an online submission and review system, where authors can submit manuscripts and track their progress. Reviewers can download manuscripts and submit their opinions. Editors can manage the whole submission/review/revise/publish process. Publishers can see what manuscripts are in the pipeline awaiting publicati... Read More

Clinical Toxicology: Drug toxicity and toxins

Image The journal of Clinical Toxicology (JCT) is a broad-based journal founded on two key tenets: To publish the most exciting researches with respect to the subjects of Clinical Toxicology: Secondly, to provide a rapid turn-around time possible for reviewing and publishing and to disseminate the articles freely for research, teaching and reference purposes. It is basically aimed at the Clinical Practitioners, medical/ health practitioners, students, professionals and researchers and professional bodies and institutions. Living organisms, particularly human are exposed to chemical subs... Read More

Public health

Image Public health Public health has been defined as "the science and art of preventing disease”, prolonging life and improving quality of life through organized efforts and informed choices of society, organizations, public and private, communities and individuals".Analyzing the determinants of health of a population and the threats it faces is the basis for public health.The public can be as small as a handful of people or ... Read More

Ophthalmology: Ocular research

Image Journal of Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology (JCEO) brings articles in all areas related to ophthalmology, neuro-ophthalmology, ocular oncology, clinical ophthalmology, experimental ophthalmology, pediatric ophthalmology, eye diseases, ophthalmic imaging, ophthalmscopy, glaucoma, vision research, cataract, cornea and corneal diseases, ocular microbiology, ophthalmic research. The main aim of the Journal of Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology is to publish high quality research works and provide Open Access to the articles using this platform. The Journal offers a rap... Read More

Revolutionizing Undergraduate Immunology Education

Image Revolutionizing Undergraduate Immunology Education Immunology has its developmental roots in understanding protection of the host from pathogens, leading to the development of vaccines and subsequently identification of soluble and cellular components of the immune system. Thus, immunology education has historically been tightly linked to infectious disease. Decades of research have demonstrated that the complexity and intricacies of the immune system are far greater than perhaps was once imagined. As a system that interfaces with all other organ systems in the bo... Read More

VISION: CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL OPHTHALMOLOGY

Image Vision is one of the most important senses we have. Vision care encompasses a number of medical, scientific, and social issues. Journal of Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology is an important discussion and knowledge dissemination podium for the researchers, students and medical practitioners. The eye is the only place in the body where both neurons and blood vessels can be directly visualized. These attributes have led to the common clinical practice for vascular diseases such as diabetes and hypertension, to have ocular assessment as a routine component of their management.... Read More

Spatiotemporal variability Studies- Applications of Remote Sensing

Image The study mapped and analyzed spatiotemporal variability of quarry sites in Mpape District, Bwari Area Council of Abuja. The study used high-resolution IKONOS satellite image, ASTERDEM and Hi-Target Differential GNSS receivers. The result showed that nine quarry sites exist in Mpape with three abandoned and six are active while three are located in the center of Mpape with one active and two abandoned. The depth analysis revealed that the deepest site is 25 m at Julius Berger quarry site and the lowest depth was 6 m at Dantata quarry site. The study also reveals that the rocky surfaces has ... Read More

Revolutionizing Cancer Research

Image Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body. These contrast with benign tumors, which do not spread.Possible signs and symptoms include a lump, abnormal bleeding, prolonged cough, unexplained weight loss, and a change in bowel movements.While these symptoms may indicate cancer, they can also have other causes.Over 100 types of cancers affect humans. Tobacco use is the cause of about 22% of cancer deaths. Another 10% are due to obesity, poor diet, lack of physical activity or excessive drinking of alcohol... Read More

Experimental Cardiology

Image On behalf of the Journal of Clinical & Experimental Cardiology, as Editor-in-Chief, it is my distinct honour and privilege to inform you that, it’s been ten long years we have started the Journal, now we are celebrating the 10th Anniversary and we are privileged to welcome Analytical Society to our journal. As Editor-In-Chief it is my great pleasure and honour to welcome you to the Journal of Clinical & Experimental Cardiology. ... Read More

Remote sensing applications in detecting oil spills to preserve the marine life

Image An Oil spill is due to contamination of seawater due to an oil pour. It can happen due to an accident or due to oil release. Being the most important energy sources in the world, Oil is transported through ships across the oceans to different countries. IT is also transported through pipelines via land. This transport which provides numerous benefits to the mankind has also resulted in several accidents in the past while transferring the oil to vessels and due to breakage of pipelines. These spills contaminate the coasts and estuaries and can cause serious health problems ... Read More

Corona Virus : A novel Pandemic

Image Coronaviruses are a group of related viruses that cause diseases in mammals and birds. In humans, coronaviruses cause respiratory tract infections that can be mild, such as some cases of the common cold (among other possible causes, predominantly rhinoviruses), and others that can be lethal, such as SARS, MERS, and COVID-19. Symptoms in other species vary: in chickens, they cause an upper respiratory tract disease, while in cows and pigs they cause diarrhea. There are yet to be vaccines or antiviral drugs to prevent or treat human coronavirus infections. Coronaviruses constitute the subfami... Read More

Clinical & Experimental Cardiology: Submissions Open

Image Journal of Clinical & Experimental Cardiology (Volume 10, Issue 11) with ISSN : 2155-9880 and the Journal impact factor of 1.79, is an Open Access Journal which is substantially functioning and publishing excellent quality research and eagerly anticipating in framing up an eminent, outstanding upcoming issue with best quality research articles for Open Access readers. This Journal accepts submissions from all th... Read More

A Rare Case of Submandibular Gland Metastasis as the First Sign of Adenocarcinoma of the Lung

Image Introduction Lung carcinomas are aggressive malignancies, characterized by early metastatic spread and poor prognosis at the time of presentation. Metastasis of non-small cell lung carcinoma to submandibular gland is rare. The diagnosis of a metastatic lesion is challenging, both to the clinician and to the pathologist. This case is a rare condition, in our knowledge it is the fourth of the literature. We present a 57-year-old male patient with lung adenocarcinoma reveleated by a tumefaction of the submandibular gland.   Case Prese... Read More

Biochemical Meaning of Defective Immune: Surveillance in Cancer Patients

Image Background:  For a long time, phenomenon of defective immune-surveillance in cancer patients from pathological standpoint was not elucidated. I have reported 1985 that lowering seral cyclic AMP is biochemical reason of defective immunesurveillance from adoptive lymphocyte immunotherapy experiment among cancer patients. Recently, Honjo Tasku et al., reported why T cell don’t attack cancer c... Read More

Innovations in Automation and Artificial Intelligence Automation, Robotics and Vision Engineering

Image Artificial Intelligence Artificial Intelligence is a region of software engineering that emphasises the production of intelligent machines that work and respond like people. Artificial intelligence is expert in studying how human brain thinks, learn, decide, and work while trying to solve a problem, and then using the products of this study as a source of increasing smart software and systems. In the real ... Read More

Vaccines Paradigms: Global Approaches in Viral Infection & Immune Response

Image Vaccines and Immunization When a Vaccine is injected into the body is called as Vaccination. The reaction of the body after administration of vaccine is Immunization. The vaccine stimulates the immune system, recognizes the diseases, protects the body from infection and prevents the spread of diseases to others. Actually, the Vaccination and Im... Read More

A Homemade Herbal Beer Containing 15 Eye-Beneficial Herbs Designed for Glaucoma Patients and People with Bad Eye Circulations (JEDD)

Image The blood supply of eyeball is mainly depending on a very thin central retinal artery and circulates back to the small vein, both of them are located in the center of the ocular nerve cord at the back of the eyeball, which is rather similar to a cherry fruit attached to a tiny stalk. It is an unreasonable design for our eye nutritional supply. The very thin central retinal ... Read More

Efficacy of Early Adalimumab or Immunomodulator on Postoperative Remission Maintenance in Patients with Crohn's Disease (JCTR)

Image This study aim was to clarify the efficacy of early adalimumab (ADA) and azathioprine (AZA) in Postoperative recurrence of Crohn’s disease (CD). In a 78-week single-center prospective study, patients with bowel resection were randomly assigned to ADA 160-80-40 mg subcutaneously (SC) or AZA 0.5-1.5 mg/kg/day. The primary endpoint was endoscopic remission at 18 months (Rutgeerts i0, i1 and Simple endoscopic score for CD (SES-CD) ≤ 4). ... Read More

Abortion and Ectogenesis: Bioethics

Image Journal of Clinical Research and Bioethics  is an peer-reviewed, open-access scholarly journal focused on publishing articles in all aspects of academic journal and aims to publish most complete and reliable source of information on the discoveries and current developments in the mode of original articles, review articles, case reports, short communications, etc. in all areas of the field and making them freely available through online without any restrictions or any other subscriptions to researchers worldwide... Read More

Clinical Trials on Drugs

Image Clinical trials  are experiments or observations done in clinical research. Such prospective biomedical or behavioral research studies on human participants are designed to answer specific questions about biomedical or behavioral interventions, including new treatments (such as novel vaccines, drugs, dietary choices, dietary supplements, and medical devices) and known interventions that warrant further study and comparison. Clinical trials generate data on safety and efficacy... Read More

Pupil (jedd)

Image Pupil Definition   The pupil is the opening in the center of the iris (the structure that gives our eyes their color). The function of the pupil is to allow light to enter the eye so it can be focused on the retina to begin the process of sight. Pupil Function Together, the iris and pupil control how much light enters the eye. Using the analogy of a camera, the pupil is the aperture of the eye and the iris is the diaphragm that controls the size of the aperture. The size of the pupil is contro... Read More

The Horns of Dilemma: Life or Sovereignty?

Image Journal of Clinical Research and Bioethics  is an peer-reviewed, open-access scholarly journal focused on publishing articles in all aspects of academic journal and aims to publish most complete and reliable source of information on the discoveries and current developments in the mode of original articles, review articles, case reports, short communications, etc. in all areas of the field and making them freely available through online without any restrictions or any other subscriptions to researchers worldwide... Read More

Perioperative Risk Factors and Predictive Model Proposal of Ultra-Fast-Track Failure and Prolonged Hospital Length of Stay in a Preliminary Protocol of Enhanced Recovery after Off-Pump Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting by Left Anterolateral Thoracotomy Approach (ERAS)

Image   Journal of Perioperative Medicine is a peer-reviewed open access scientific journal. The journal is dedicated to the global advancement of surgical research, education and clinical practice. Journal of Perioperative Medicine aims to promote continued developments in surgery through the sharing of knowledge, innovated ideas across all surgical specialties. ... Read More

Advancements and Innovations in Automation and Swarm Intelligence

Image Artificial Intelligence Artificial Intelligence is a region of software engineering that emphasises the production of intelligent machines that work and respond like people. Artificial intelligence is expert in studying how human brain thinks, learn, decide, and work while trying to solve a problem, and then using the products of this study as a source of increasing ... Read More

Scientific Insight in the Prevention & Treatment of Viral Diseases Vaccines

Image Vaccination Vaccines play a key role in the healthcare department, especially for growing children. Vaccines are products that protect people against chronic diseases. Unlike other medicines that treat or cure diseases, vaccines prevent them. Vaccines are products that generate immunity to a specific disease. Vaccines play a major role in keeping... Read More

Anti viral drugs

Image Antiviral drugs are a class of medication used specifically for treating viral infections rather than bacterial ones. Most antivirals are used for specific viral infections, while a broad-spectrum antiviral is effective against a wide range of viruses. Unlike most antibiotics, antiviral drugs do not destroy their target pathogen; instead they inhibit their development. Antiviral drugs are one class of antimicrobials, a larger group which also includes antibiotic (also terme... Read More

Biological science

Image The Journal of Biology and Today’s World is a leading academic research journal, which publishes scholarly articles in the field of medicine and biology. This journal publishes the finest peer-reviewed research in all aspects of medicine and biology keeping in mind the originality, importance, accessibility, timeliness, elegance, and startling conclusions. Due its broad scope, a diverse set of topics, such as genetics, biotechnology, biochemistry, microbiology, cellular & molecular biology, and disease biology, are covered under the aegis of this journal. Additionally, t... Read More

Innovative Studies on Artificial Intelligence Evolutionary Computation

Image Neural systems Artificial Intelligence 2020 Asia covers information processing in natural and artificial neural systems. The conference presents a fresh, undogmatic attitude towards this multi-disciplinary field, aiming to be a forum for novel ideas and improved understanding of collective and cooperative phenomena in systems with computational capabilities. Abstracts are invited on the broad subject which involves physics, biology, ... Read More

New innovations in the field of vaccines and immunization

Image Vaccines Vaccines play a vital role in the healthcare department especially for a growing children.  A vaccine is a biological preparation that provides active acquired immunity to a particular disease. Totally 26 Vaccines are available authorized by the WHO. Different Vaccines are Measles vaccines, Rubella vaccines, Cholera vaccines, Meningococcal disease vaccines, Influenza vaccines, ... Read More

Microbiology Society

Image Microbiology Society The Microbiology Society (previously the Society for General Microbiology) is a learned society based in the United Kingdom with a worldwide membership based in universities, industry, hospitals, research institutes and schools. It is the largest learned microbiological society in Europe.[1] Interests of its members include basic and applied aspects of viruses, prions, bacteria, rickettsiae, mycoplasma, fungi, algae and protozoa, and all other aspects of microbiology. Its headquarters is at 14–16 Meredith Street, London.[2] The Society&#... Read More

Biosafety-Microbiology

Image Biosafety-Microbiology   Biosafety is the prevention of large-scale loss of biological integrity, focusing both on ecology and human health.[1] These prevention mechanisms include conduction of regular reviews of the biosafety in laboratory settings, as well as strict guidelines to follow. Biosafety is used to protect from harmful incidents. Many laboratories handling biohazards employ an ongoing risk management assessment and enforcement process for biosafety. Failures to follow such protocols can lead to increased risk of exposure to biohazards or... Read More

Retina (JEDD)

Image Retina, layer of nervous tissue that covers the inside of the back two-thirds of the eyeball, in which stimulation by light occurs, initiating the sensation of vision. The retina is actually an extension of the brain, formed embryonically from neural tissue and connected to the brain proper by the optic nerve. The retina is a complex transparent tissue consisting of several layers, only one of which contains light-sensitive photoreceptor cells. Light must pass through the overlying layers to reach the photoreceptor cells, which are of two types, rods and cones,... Read More

Journal of Clinical Trials

Image Clinical trials are experiments or observations done in clinical research. Such prospective biomedical or behavioral research studies on human participants are designed to answer specific questions about biomedical or behavioral interventions, including new treatments (such as novel vaccines, drugs, dietary choices, dietary supplements, and medical devices) and known interventions that      warrant further study and compari... Read More

thyroid tests

Image THYROID TESTS Blood tests to measure these hormones are readily available and widely used, but not all are useful in all situations. Tests to evaluate thyroid function include the following: TSH TESTS The best way to initially test thyroid function is to measure the TSH level in a blood sample. Changes in TSH can serve as an “early warning system” – often occurring before the actual level of thyroid hormones in the body becomes too high or too low. A high TSH level indicates that the thyroid gland is not making... Read More

Application of Nightingale's Theory : Journal of Clinical Research & Bioethics

Image Journal of Clinical Research and Bioethics  is an peer-reviewed, open-access scholarly journal focused on publishing articles in all aspects of academic journal and aims to publish most complete and reliable source of information on the discoveries and current developments in the mode of original articles, review articles, case reports, short communications, etc. in all areas of the field and making them freely available through online without any restrictions or an... Read More

Immunity, Genes and Microbes of Uveitis

Image Uveitis is one of the leading causes of blindness worldwide and is comprised of a clinically heterogenous group of subtypes with diverse etiologies. A widely accepted hypothesis is that infectious agents and immunological abnormalities in genetically susceptible individuals may be responsible for the initiation and chronicity of uveitis. The majority of these uveitis subtypes are multifactorial, with the contribution of genetic inheritance, immune dysregulation and gut microbiota abnormalities all playing a part. Both innate and adaptive immune responses are reported to be ac... Read More

Toxicity and Bioremoval

Image Nanotechnology has become one of the fastest growing branches of science that has successfully solved problems in medicine, industry, pharmacy and agriculture. The preparation, characterization and applications have drawn the attention of researchers worldwide to contribute with new ideas and come up with unique new material. However, the same unique characteristics of engineered nanoparticles including small size, ability to cross cell membranes, and toxicity to cancer and microbial cells are indeed the same reasons they are categorized as hazardous pollutants when they finally reach open ... Read More

An approach to medicine

Image Medicine is the science and practice of establishing the diagnosis, prognosis, treatment, and prevention of disease. Medicine encompasses a variety of health care practices evolved to maintain and restore health by the prevention and treatment of illness. Contemporary medicine applies biomedical sciences, biomedical research, genetics, and medical technology to diagnose, treat, and prevent injury and disease, typically through pharmaceuticals or surgery, but also through therapies as diverse as psychotherapy, external splints and traction, medical devices, biologics, and ionizing radiation,... Read More

Rabies lyssavirus

Image Rabies lyssavirus, formerly Rabies virus, is a neurotropic virus that causes rabies in humans and animals. Rabies transmission can occur through the saliva of animals and less commonly through contact with human saliva. Rabies lyssavirus, like many rhabdoviruses, has an extremely wide host range. In the wild it has been found infecting many mammalian species, while in the laboratory it has been found that birds can be infected, as well as cell cultures from mammals, birds, reptiles and insects. Rabies lyssavirus has a cylindrical morphology and is the type species of the Lyssaviru... Read More

Focus on Flood Mapping Technology

Image Flood mapping is an important aspect of flood risk management.  Flood hazard map predicts the  expected water depths of an area flooded. The analysis is done in three different perspectives namely, a low/medium, high probability or extreme scenario. Flood Mapping Technology has applications in Near Real Time Flood Mapping and Monitoring, Flood Damage Assessment, Flood Hazard Zone Mapping, River Bank Erosion Mapping, Mapping changes in the river course. The main components of near real time flood mapping and monitoring involves... Read More

Virus-Microbiology

Image Virus-Microbiology   A virus is a small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of an organism. Viruses can infect all types of life forms, from animals and plants to microorganisms, including bacteria and archaea. Since Dmitri Ivanovsky's 1892 article describing a non-bacterial pathogen infecting tobacco plants, and the discovery of the tobacco mosaic virus by Martinus Beijerinck in 1898,[2] about 5,000 virus species have been described in detail,[3] of the millions of types of viruses in the environment.[4] Viru... Read More

Amoeba

Image Amoeba   An amoeba (/əˈmiːbə/; rarely spelt amœba; plural am(o)ebas or am(o)ebae /əˈmiːbi/),[1] often called an amoeboid, is a type of cell or unicellular organism which has the ability to alter its shape, primarily by extending and retracting pseudopods.[2] Amoebae do not form a single taxonomic group; instead, they are found in every major lineage of eukaryotic organisms. Amoeboid cells occur not only among the protozoa, but also in fungi, algae, and animals.[3][4][5][6][7] Microbiologists often use the terms "amoeboid&... Read More

Ciliated Foregut Cyst of Gallbladder: A Little Known Entity

Image Ciliated Foregut Cyst of Gallbladder: A Little Known Entity Ciliated foregut cysts are rare masses that develop from the tissues which remain from embryological foregutdevelopment. In the literature, a few cases have been described in various organs so far. The solitary cysts arecharacterized by ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium. They are usually located above the diaphragm butthey can also arise in relation to the liver, gallbladder and pancreas. Although rare, there is a risk of development ofsquamous cell carcinoma from these cysts that typical... Read More

Successful Surgical Management of Massive SuprachoroidalHaemorrhage Complicating Phacoemulsification

Image Successful Surgical Management of Massive SuprachoroidalHaemorrhage Complicating Phacoemulsification Purpose: To report a case of right eye massive suprachoroidal haemorrhage complicating phacoemulsification, which was treated successfully with drainage sclerotomy and pars plana vitrectomy. Results: A 79-y old lady’s right eye vision improved from light perception to 6/60 following vitreoretinal surgery formassive suprachoroidal haemorrhage from phacoemulsification. Conclusion: A relatively ... Read More

MicroRNA Signatures in Plant Genome Stability and Genotoxic Stress

Image Plant are subject to high levels of DNA damage resulting from their obligatory dependence on sunlight and the associated exposure to environmental stresses. Irreversible DNA damage generated by genotoxic stresses hinders plant development and crop productivity. In order to maintain genome stability, plants have developed multiple mechanisms to detect and repair DNA damage. Among these, the intricate DNA damage response (DDR) network consists of an impressive array of DNA damage sensing and signal transduction pathways leading to DNA repair and cell survival or, alternatively, triggering cel... Read More

Adherence to Infection Prevention and Factors among Nurses in Jimma University Medical Center

Image Adherence to Infection Prevention and Factors among Nurses in Jimma University Medical Center Background: Adherence to infection prevention and control guidelines is critical to improving the quality of hospital care based on their efficacy in reducing the occurrence of infections that compromise patients’ outcome. Nurses are front line of protecting themselves and clients from infectious disease. Nurses perform clinical procedures or other activities that can generate waste and expose themselves and clients to potentially infectious disease. T... Read More

Thyroid disorders in India

Image Thyroid disorders in India   Thyroid diseases are common worldwide. In India too, there is a significant burden of thyroid diseases. According to a projection from various studies on thyroid disease, it has been estimated that about 42 million people in India suffer from thyroid diseases. This review will focus on the epidemiology of five common thyroid diseases in India: (1) hypothyroidism, (2) hyperthyroidism, (3) goiter and iodine deficiency disorders, (4) Hashimoto's... Read More

The Role of Inflammation in Diabetic Retinopathy

Image Diabetic retinopathy (DR), the most common complication of diabetes mellitus, is the leading cause of visual impairment and blindness among working-age adults. Vision loss in DR can be caused by macular edema as the consequence of increased vascular permeability due to the blood-retinal barrier (BRB) breakdown and altered fluid movements into retinal tissue. Proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR), characterized by neovascularization on the retinal surface, can cause severe vision loss caused by vitreous hemorrhage and/or traction retinal detachment. In addition, accumulating data suggest ... Read More

Evaluation of Diagnostic Significance and Cost Effectiveness of ELISA andIFA for the Diagnosis of Autoimmune Disorders

Image Evaluation of Diagnostic Significance and Cost Effectiveness of ELISA andIFA for the Diagnosis of Autoimmune Disorders Background: The presence of antinuclear antibodies (ANA) is a hallmark of autoimmune diseases. AsClinicopathological classification of autoimmune diseases is difficult without laboratory support, laboratory testing isof helps in diagnosis, treatment, prognosis, and prediction of the pathological changes by disease activity. Althoughdifferent tests are available for ANA detection enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is the mai... Read More

Encoding Visual Features by Parallel Ganglion Cell Initiated Pathways

Image Photons are sensed by retinal photoreceptors whose matrix-like distribution underlies the transformation of the illumination pattern of the visual scene into a photoreceptor activity pattern in a visuotopic fashion. Activity of neighboring photoreceptors then are compared by secondary bipolar cells to decipher information regarding luminosity- and color-contrast and ultimately sent to retinal ganglion cells, the output neurons of the retina. Bipolar cells achieve this by comparing illumination information received directly from their center receptive field with those come from spatially off... Read More

Thyroid Disorders and Therapy

Image Thyroid Disorders and Therapy   Thyroid Disorders and Therapy, is a peer-reviewed online journal with 3 Issues print on demand compilation of issues published. The journal allows free access (Open Access) to its contents and permits authors to self-archive final accepted version of the articles on any OAI-compliant institutional / subject-based repository. The journal does not charge for submission, processing o... Read More

Perioperative medicine: the future of anaesthesia?

Image Journal of Perioperative Medicine is an Open Access journal and aims to publish various aspects of anesthesiology and perioperative medicine and making them freely available worldwide. Journal of Perioperative Medicine strives to support research and discovery in the field by publishing the best original articles in all branches of Anesthesia. Submitted manuscripts are subject to stringent review to ensure that the journal only contains papers of the highest standard. ... Read More

Journal of Tumor Research : Aromatase Inhibitors

Image Aromatase inhibitors (AIs) are a class of drugs used in the treatment of breast cancer and ovarian cancer in postmenopausal women and swelling of breast tissue in men. They may also be used off-label to reduce increase of oestrogen conversion during cycle with external testosterone. They may also be used for chemoprevention in high risk women. 3D Mammograms Digital breast tomosynthesis also known as 3D mammography, is a revoluti... Read More

Journal of Tumor Research : Editorial Board

Image Journal of Tumor Research is an open access, peer-reviewed journal. It is obvious why open access and open data portals would be beneficial to the public: free information and more of it is empowering to society. The diversity of information available in Open Access also makes it possible for Scholars and other information users to have wide access to more information.   The journal invites different types of articles including original research article, review articles, short note communications, case reports, Editorials, letters to the Editors and expert opinions & comm... Read More

Reappraisal fetal pain

Image   On behalf of the Journal of Clinical Research & Biothics , as Editor-in-Chief, it is my distinct honour and privilege to inform you that, it’s been ten long years we have started the Journal and we have publishing the elventh volume this year sucessfully. As Editor-In-Chief it is my great pleasure and honour to welcome to oue esteemed Journal. Journal accepts original manuscripts in the form of research articles, review articles, Clinical reviews, commentaries, case repor... Read More

Valsalva Retinopathy in Pregnancy: A Case Report from the Emergency Department

Image Rapid increases in intraocular pressure can result in sudden-onset vision loss in a self-limiting condition known as Valsalva Retinopathy. Pregnancy is a known risk factor. A pregnant woman presents to the Emergency Department with complaints of unilateral central vision loss after an episode of vomiting. Fundus exam of the left eye identified haemorrhages consistent with Valsalva Retinopathy. Superficial retinal capillaries can hemorrhage as a result of Vals... Read More

Assessing Clinical Trial Technology: Evaluating the TIME Study

Image Electronic data capture has quickly become the preferred means of capturing and storing clinical study data. Cost and efficiency savings have been documented, yet it is unclear how acceptable this technology is to participants. An evaluation survey has been created to assess participant attitudes to a clinical study website. Methods: The TIME study is a clinical study that uses an online methodology to compare mor... Read More

Stomach Ulcer: Causes, Symptoms, and Diagnosid

Image Stomach ulcers, which are also known as gastric ulcers, are painful sores in the stomach lining. Stomach ulcers are a type of peptic ulcer disease. Peptic ulcers are any ulcers that affect both the stomach and small intestines. Stomach ulcers occur when the thick layer of mucus that protects your stomach from digestive juices is reduced. This allows the digestive acids to eat away at the tissues that line the stomach, causing an ulcer. A number of symptoms are associated with stomach ulcers. The sever... Read More

Innovations in Automation and Swarm Intelligence

Image Artificial Intelligence is a region of software engineering that emphasises the production of intelligent machines that work and respond like people. Artificial intelligence is expert in studying how human brain thinks, learn, decide, and work while trying to solve a problem, and then using the products of this study as a source of increasing smart software and systems. In the real life, the knowledge has some undesirable properties. In the modern world, ... Read More

New Era of Scientific Insight in the Prevention & Treatment of Viral Diseases

Image General Virology: Virology is a branch of science that mainly deals with the study of the biology of viruses and viral diseases and mainly focuses on viral classification, biochemistry, physiology, molecular biology, ecology, evolution and clinical aspects of viruses. Past few years the world has been witnessing some of the chronic issues involvi... Read More

Modulation of the Host Immune Response by PRRSV

Image Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS) continues to be one of the most economically important diseases in the modern swine industry. Despite the large number of studies carried out to better understand the interaction between PRRS-virus (PRRSV) and the host immune response, there are still numerous questions to be answered to allow the establishment of efficient control measures of this disease. This Research Topic welcomes opinion pieces, review articles and research papers focused on: - The most recent advances in host-pathogen interaction - in particular the strat... Read More

CAR T-Cell Therapies in Hematologic Tumors

Image Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) are genetically constructed hybrid receptors that consist of a single-chain variable fragment (scFv) of a monoclonal antibody as the antigen-binding extracellular domain, an intracellular CD3ζ chain as the T cell receptor (TCR) signaling domain, and an additional co-signaling domain, mainly CD28 or 4-1BB, to deliver co-stimulation. Cytotoxic activity of CAR T cells is determined by antigen-binding to the scFv leading to the phosphorylation of CD3ζ and to additional signaling cascades by co-stimulating domains. This mechanism recapitulates intracel... Read More

Investigating Advancements in the Field of Vaccines & Immunization

ImageVaccines and Immunization” is a global platform to discuss and learn Vaccines and Immunization, Vaccine Preventable Diseases, Plant-Based Vaccines, Types of Immunology, Immunoresearch & Immunotechnology, Autoimmune & Inflammatory Diseases, Immune Diseases, Making a Session Plan, Giving Vaccinations, HIV Vaccines, Vaccines Production and Development, Vaccines for Immune Mediated Diseases, Vaccine Safety & Efficacy. ... Read More

Risk Factors for Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Its Mortality Rate: A Multicenter Study in Indonesia

Image Study design and population We conducted a cohort retrospective data study from two tertiary hospitals (Cipto Mangunkusumo National General Hospital and Dharmais Hospital) between January 2015 to November 2017. There were 282 HCC patients recruited in this study (158 patients from Cipto Mangunkusumo National General Hospital and 124 patients from Dharmais Hospital). The inclusion criterion was a confirmed HCC diagnosis, while patients with other malignancy and incomplete laboratory or clinical data were excluded. Data collection ... Read More

Case reports in gastrointestinal medicine Granular cell tumor: A rare entity of the perianal region

Image Introduction   Granular cell tumor is a pathological entity that was first described by Abrikossof in 1926. Many locations were described. The most frequent one is the buccal mucosa especially on the tongue, dermis and subcutaneous tissue. Granular cells tumor is rarely located in the perianal region . Granular cell tumors often occur between the 4th and 6th decades with a male predominance that can reach up to 68%. Although a malignant variant of this tumor exists, it barely presents 2% of all cases. The d... Read More

Journal of Surgery and Anesthesia Invite Editorial Board members

Image Journal of Surgery and Anesthesia Invites Editorial Board members Journal of Surgery and Anesthesia is a peer reviewed, open access journal dedicated to publishing research on all aspects of surgery and anaesthesia. This journal aims to keep anaesthesiologists, anaesthetic practitioners, surgeons and surgical researchers up to date by publishing clinical & evidence based research. Journal of Surgery and Anesthesia addresses all aspects o... Read More

Microbes info

Image Microbes info   Girolamo Fracastoro, an Italian scholar, advanced the notion as early as the mid-1500s that contagion is an infection that passes from one thing to another. A description of precisely what is passed along eluded discovery until the late 1800s, when the work of many scientists, Pasteur foremost among them, determined the role of bacteria in fermentation and disease. Robert Koch, a German physician, defined the procedure (Koch’s postulates) for proving that a specific organism causes a specific disease.   ... Read More

Topic on Microbiology

Image Topic on Microbiology   Spontaneous generation versus biotic generation of life The early Greeks believed that living things could originate from nonliving matter (abiogenesis) and that the goddess Gea could create life from stones. Aristotle discarded this notion, but he still held that animals could arise spontaneously from dissimilar organisms or from soil. His influence regarding this concept of spontaneous generation was still felt as late as the 17th century, but toward the end of that century a chain of observations... Read More

Surgery a medical specialty

Image Surgery is a medical specialty that uses operative manual and instrumental techniques on a person to investigate or treat a pathological condition such as a disease or injury, to help improve bodily function or appearance or to repair unwanted ruptured areas. The act of performing surgery may be called a surgical procedure, operation, or simply "surgery". In this context, the verb "operate" means to perform surgery. The adjective surgical means pertaining to surgery; e.g. surgical instruments or surgical nurse. The person or subject on which the surgery is performed can ... Read More

Antiretroviral therapy HIV/Aids

Image Standard antiretroviral therapy (ART) consists of the combination of at least three antiretroviral (ARV) drugs to maximally suppress the HIV virus and stop the progression of HIV disease. Huge reductions have been seen in rates of death and suffering when use is made of a potent ARV regimen, particularly in early stages of the disease. Furthermore, expanded access to ART can also reduce the HIV transmission at population level, impact orphanhood and preserve families. In 2011, an estimated 34 million people were living with HIV. WHO and UNAIDS estimate that at ... Read More

Journal of Eye Diseases and Disorders

Image Journal of Eye Diseases and Disorders (ISSN: 2684-1622) has announced Annual Membership with exclusive discount on article processing charge to commemorate on its Anniversary.  Journal of Eye Diseases and Disorders (JEDD) is an Open access academic journal that encompasses a wide range of current research on Clinical Sciences, Corneal transplant, Diabetic Retinopathy, Dry eye, Glaucoma and Diabete... Read More

First Clinical Application of New Bone Substitute Material to the Alveolar Cleft

Image Secondary bone grafting of alveolar cleft using autologous particulate cancellous bone from the ilium is an essential treatment for cleft lip/palate patients. However, secondary surgical invasion represents a disadvantage. To avoid this disadvantage, octacalcium phosphate collagen composites (OCP/Col) were developed as a new bone substitute material. Through preclinical studies and clinical application for cyst holes and extraction sockets, OCP/Col demonstrated sa... Read More

Environmental Toxicants and Cardiopulmonary Consequences

Image Environmental Toxicants and Cardiopulmonary Consequences   Emerging evidence indicates that exposure to environmental toxicants including air pollutants (indoor and outdoor pollutants) and various contaminants present in drinking water and food have been shown to either contribute to or be associated with the development and progression of multiple cardiopulmonary diseases (CPD). According to the world health organization (WHO) statement, around 4.2 million deaths globally are linked to ambient air pollution, primarily due to heart disease, stroke, ... Read More

Potential triggers of sudden infant deaths: Infection and inflammation

Image Potential triggers of sudden infant deaths: Infection and inflammation   There is a growing body of evidence that infectious agents or their products contribute to events leading to unexpected infant deaths. This issue summarizes the current information on the interactions between genetic background of the infant, environmental and developmental risk factors, and the microbial flora of the infant that could trigger lethal responses to common infections. The evidence for the role of infection and inflammation in these deaths comes from a variety of sou... Read More

Origins of Human Neuropathology

Image Origins of Human Neuropathology The teneurins and latrophilins are essential for the function, maintenance and pathology of the central nervous system (CNS). The goal of this Research Topic is to unite our understanding of the teneurins, and their cognate receptors, latrophilins, with the aim of establishing their integrated role with respect to interneuronal activity and how it relates to human pathology. Critical to the origin of the CNS is the intercellular adhesion and communication among sensory and motor cells to coordinate feeding, energy metabolism, growth and reproduction... Read More

Aspergillus-Derived Mycotoxins In The Feed And Food Chain

Image Aspergillus-Derived Mycotoxins In The Feed And Food Chain Mycotoxins produced by Aspergillus species, e.g. carcinogenic aflatoxins, genotoxic patulin, and nephrotoxic ochratoxin A, represent a major health threat to humans and livestock. These mycotoxins are known to affect a wide range of foods and drinks such as maize, coffee, wine, peanuts, dairy products, etc. The perceptible effects of climate changes on mycotoxin production in crops throw new light upon the economic and health risks of these notorious fungal secondary metabolites with the unprecedented detec... Read More

Eyeblink Classical Conditioning in Psychiatric Conditions

Image Eyeblink Classical Conditioning in Psychiatric Conditions Eyeblink classical conditioning (EBCC) is a model paradigm for associative learning, one of the most basic forms of learning and memory. Two major EBCC paradigms are utilized with human subjects. In delay EBCC, a conditioned stimulus (CS; e.g., an auditory tone) co-terminates with the unconditioned stimulus (US; e.g., a corneal airpuff). In trace EBCC, CS presentation is followed by a silent interstimulus interval (which Pavlov termed the “trace” interval), with the US non-overlapping with the C... Read More

Mind’s Eye Inward: The Interplay between Selective Attention and Working Memory

Image Mind’s Eye Inward: The Interplay between Selective Attention and Working Memory Historically, cognitive sciences have considered selective attention and working memory as largely separated cognitive functions. That is, selective attention as a concept is typically reserved for the processes that allow for the prioritization of specific sensory input, while working memory entails more central structures for maintaining (and operating on) temporary mental representations. However, over the last decades various observations have been reported that question such... Read More

Ocular Motor and Vestibular Deficits in Neurometabolic, Neurogenetics

Image Ocular Motor and Vestibular Deficits in Neurometabolic, Neurogenetic, and Neurodegenerative Diseases   The study of eye movement is a rich source of information about brain functioning for neurologists and neuroscientists. The eye movements provide diagnostic clues, define, and localize motor and cognitive disorders. Objective eye movement assessments associated with clinical observation and genetic testing in neurometabolic and neurogenetic diseases provide insight into their pathophysiology and disease mechanism. Finally the eye movements may be u... Read More

Eye Movements: Role in Sports and Active Living

Image Eye Movements: Role in Sports and Active Living   Eye movements are essential to collect accurate visual information from relevant scene locations, allowing optimal control of human movements in sports and active living. Vision provides, via feedback and feedforward modes, information for adjustments of the effector system to perform efficiently in a variety of environmental constraints. Beyond facilitating spatial perception and respective improvements in movement quality, gaze behavior reflects attentional and cognitive resources involved in motor performance. Spo... Read More

Neuroethics: Journal of Clinical Research and Bioethics

Image Neuroethics refers to two related fields of study: what the philosopher Adina Roskies has called the ethics of neuroscience, and the neuroscience of ethics.The ethics of neuroscience comprises the bulk of work in neuroethics. Key issues Brain interventions: The ethics of neurocognitive enhancement, that is the use of drugs and other brain interventions to make normal people "better than well", is an example of a neuroethical issue with both familiar and novel aspects. Brain imaging: In addition to th... Read More

The Molecular Mechanisms of Regulatory T cell Immunosuppression

Image Ever since Regulatory T cells (T-Regs) were first defined as peripheral CD4+ T cells that express the interleukin-2 (IL-2) receptor alpha chain (IL-2Rα), there have been intensive efforts to determine the molecular mechanisms whereby this minor subset of CD4+ T cells (~ 5-10%) nonspecifically suppresses all potential effector T cells, whether reactive to self or non-self antigens. Multiple possible molecular mechanisms have been implicated, including the scavenging of IL-2 via the expression of high densities of IL-2Rs, the inhibition of antigen presentation via CTLA-4 molecules leadi... Read More

Melanoma of the Ciliary Body of the Young Subject: A Case Report

Image Melanoma of the Ciliary Body of the Young Subject: A Case Report Uveal melanomas are the most common primary intraocular. We report a case of melanoma of the ciliary body from the left eye of a 21 y old patient. Ophthalmological examination of the left eye revealed the presence of a poorly pigmented tumor that presses back the lower temporal equatorial lens. The bottom of the eye is uninterpretable. The ultrasound measurements of the tumor were 3.5 mm thick over 10 mm in diameter. The diagnosis of ciliary body melanoma was posed. However, the patient has atypical kar... Read More

In silico Prediction of Peptide based Vaccine against Fowlpox Virus (FPV)

Image In silico Prediction of Peptide based Vaccine against Fowlpox Virus (FPV) Fowlpox virus (FPV) is double stranded DNA virus and a member of Poxviridae family which transmitted via aerosols and insect bite and causes cutaneous and diphtheritic infection in poultry population. This study aimed to design peptide vaccine by selecting all possible epitopes after analyzing of all FPV140 protein sequence reported in NCBI database using in silico approaches. After alignment of retrieved sequence the conserved region applied into IEDB analysis tool to predict B and T cell e... Read More

General anaesthetic

Image General anaesthetics (or anesthetics, see spelling differences) are often defined as compounds that induce a loss of consciousness in humans or loss of righting reflex in animals. Clinical definitions are also extended to include an induced coma that causes lack of awareness to painful stimuli, sufficient to facilitate surgical applications in clinical and veterinary practice. General anaesthetics do not act as analgesics and should also not be confused with sedatives. General anaes... Read More

Microbes and disease

Image Microbes and disease   Girolamo Fracastoro, an Italian scholar, advanced the notion as early as the mid-1500s that contagion is an infection that passes from one thing to another. A description of precisely what is passed along eluded discovery until the late 1800s, when the work of many scientists, Pasteur foremost among them, determined the role of bacteria in fermentation and disease. Robert Koch, a German physician, defined the procedure (Koch’s postulates) for proving that a specific organism causes a specific disease.  ... Read More

Biotic Generation : Microbiology

Image Biotic Generation : Microbiology   Spontaneous generation versus biotic generation of life The early Greeks believed that living things could originate from nonliving matter (abiogenesis) and that the goddess Gea could create life from stones. Aristotle discarded this notion, but he still held that animals could arise spontaneously from dissimilar organisms or from soil. His influence regarding this concept of spontaneous generation was still felt as late as the 17th century, but toward the end of that century a chain of o... Read More

Biology

Image Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical processes, molecular interactions, physiological mechanisms, development and evolution. Despite the complexity of the science, there are certain unifying concepts that consolidate it into a single, coherent field. Biology recognizes the cell as the basic unit of life, genes as the basic unit of heredity, and evolution as the engine that propels the creation and extinction of species. Living organisms are open systems that survive by transforming energy and decreasing their loc... Read More

Influenza A virus subtype H1N1

Image Influenza virus (H1N1) is the subtype of influenza A virus that was the most common cause of human influenza (flu) in 2009, and is associated with the 1918 outbreak known as the Spanish flu. It is an orthomyxovirus that contains the glycoproteins haemagglutinin and neuraminidase. For this reason, they are described as H1N1, H1N2 etc. depending on the type of H or N antigens they express with metabolic synergy. Haemagglutinin causes red blood cells to clump together and binds the virus to the infected cell. Neuraminidase is a type of glycoside hydrolase enzyme which helps to move the virus p... Read More

Can Low Vision Aids Improve the Quality of Life of Low Vision Patients?

Image Considering the community-level of low vision, evaluation the rate of satisfaction of different Low Vision Aids (LVAs) and Quality Of Life (QOL), in Low Visions (LV) who use a kind of them, is very important. This is a cross-sectional study. This study evaluated the rate of satisfaction and QOL in the patients who presented to Cheshmak LV centre in Malayer since 21 June 2012 till 21 June 2015 and received a kind of LVA, with a reliable interviewing questionnaire. Statistical testing was carried out by using the SPSS-18. Two tailed paired ttest and independent t-test were used. Differences w... Read More

Malaria in Children in Guediawaye, Senegal (Journal of Clinical Trials)

Image Malaria is one of the leading causes of infant and child mortality, despite the efforts made in Senegal. The objective of this study is to describe the epidemiological, clinical, Para clinical, therapeutic and evolutionary aspects of malaria in children in a pediatric ward of a Dakar hospital. This is a retrospective descriptive study, with an analytical focus over a 5-year period from January 1st, 2013 to December 31st, 2017, in the pediatrics department of Roi Baudouin Ho... Read More

Epidemiology of hypopharyngeal and oropharyngeal cancers in Japan

Image Epidemiology of hypopharyngeal and oropharyngeal cancers in Japan BACKGROUND: Both hypopharyngeal cancer and oropharyngeal cancer are rare malignancies. However, it is reported that the incidences of these cancers have increased in Japan. It is known that smoking and drinking are risk factors for both cancers. Recently, human papillomavirus (HPV) is regarded as a risk factor for oropharyngeal cancer. In this article the changes in the mortality rates of these cancers are described from the viewpoint of descriptive epidemiology. M... Read More

Case History of Tumor Research

Image Case History of Tumor Research Introduction Although the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses occupy a relatively small anatomical space, they are the site of origin of some of the more complex, histologically diverse group of tumours in the entire human body. Carcinomas of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses account for 0.2-0.8% of all malignant neoplasms and 3% of those occurring in the head and neck. Sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma is a highly aggressive and clinicopathologically distinctive carcinoma of uncertain histogenesis ... Read More

Discovering the new advances in Automation and Artificial Intelligence for the new generation

Image Artificial Intelligence Artificial Intelligence is a region of software engineering that emphasises the production of intelligent machines that work and respond like people. Artificial intelligence is expert in studying how human brain thinks, learn, decide, and work while trying to solve a problem, and then using the products of this study as a source of increasing smart software and systems. In the real life, the knowledge has some... Read More

Emphasizing the global approaches in Viral Infection & Immune Response

Image Vaccines and Immunization When a Vaccine is injected into the body is called as Vaccination. The reaction of the body after administration of vaccine is Immunization. The vaccine stimulates the immune system, recognizes the diseases, protects the body from infection and prevents the spread of diseases to others. Actually, the Vaccination and Immunization meanings are not same but they are often used interchangeably. Human Vaccines-Infect... Read More

Journal of Dermatitis divulge the way for the treatment of skin disorders

Image Journal of Dermatitis shares about one of the disease like Psoriasis is perceived as an incessant incendiary immune system illness brought about by hereditary qualities, the insusceptible framework and ecological variables with natural deviations in the skin as either reliably overabundance expansion of cell constituents, especially the epidermis, keratinocytes to hyper proliferate and sustain the infection procedure. A standard publication director framework is used for composition... Read More

Prevention and Diagnostic Methods of Microbial Diseases

Image Journal of Bacteriology & Parasitology deeply discuss about the irresistible sicknesses are brought about by pathogenic microorganisms, for example, microscopic organisms, infections, parasites or growths; the illnesses can be spread, straightforwardly or in a roundabout way, starting with one individual then onto the next. Zoonotic sicknesses are irresistible maladies of creatures that can make infection when transmitted people. Germs, or organisms, are found all... Read More

HEALTH ETHICS

Image Health ethics is a system of moral principles that apply values to the practice of clinical medicine and in scientific research. Medical ethics is based on a set of values that professionals can refer to in the case of any confusion or conflict. These values include the respect for autonomy, non-maleficence, ben... Read More

Commentary on “Association of mir12475p Expression with Clinicopathological Parameters and Prognosis in Breast Cancer

Image Commentary on Association of mir12475p Expression with Clinicopathological Parameters and Prognosis in Breast Cancer Breast cancer is the most common form of cancer and the second most common cause of cancer death in women. Although great advances have been made in clinical treatments, satisfactory outcomes have not always been achieved. Нus prevention and treatment of breast cancer still remains a concern and challenge for oncologists throughout the world. Early detection is one of the most important methods which might improve the survival of breast cancer... Read More

Organisation of a Clinical Laboratory

Image Organisation of a Clinical Laboratory Lab management is the- Planning/Strategy Organization Leadership Staff management The skill for management requeries- Well organised Good time management Delegation Communication Problem solving Leadership Administrative and financial skills Forward planning and strategic skills ... Read More

Functional endoscopic sinus surgery

Image Functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) is a minimally invasive surgical treatment which uses nasal endoscopes to enlarge the nasal drainage pathways of the paranasal sinuses to improve sinus ventilation. This procedure is generally used to treat inflammatory and infectious sinus diseases, including chronic rhinosinusitis that doesn't respond to drugs, nasal polyps, some cancers, and decompression of eye sockets/optic nerve in Graves’s ophthalmopathy. In the surgery, an otolaryngologist removes the uncinate process of the ethmoid bone, while visualizing the nasal pass... Read More

Anesthesia

Image Anesthesia or anaesthesia (from Greek "without sensation") is a state of controlled, temporary loss of sensation or awareness that is induced for medical purposes. It may include analgesia (relief from or prevention of pain), paralysis (muscle relaxation), amnesia (loss of memory), or unconsciousness. A patient under the effects of anesthetic drugs is referred to as being anesthetized. Anesthesia enables the painless performance of medical procedure that would otherwise cause severe or intolerable pain to an unanesthetized patient, or would otherwise be technically unfea... Read More

Rule Out Normal Tension Glaucoma in a Young Woman (JEDD)

Image A 44 year-old Caucasian woman presented with one year of dLfcult\ driving at night. She perceived an intermittent ٽlm over the inferior part of her vision in both eyes that was worse in the dark. An outside ophthalmologist noted bilateral inferior arcuate defects on visual ٽelds (Figure 1) and referred her for possible glaucoma. Нere was no sLJnLfcant ocular history. Her medical history was remarkable for pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) and obstructive sleep apnea. Medications included leuprorelin a... Read More

Transforming the future of clinical development

Image Digital technologies can transform how companies approach clinical development by incorporating valuable insights from multiple sources of data, radically improving the patient experience, enhancing clinical trial productivity, and increasing the amount and quality of data collected in trials. Collectively, digital technologies can help achieve the following strategic objectives in ... Read More

Advances in Immunology & Vaccine Technology and Their Impact

Image Vaccines play a vital role in the healthcare department especially for growing children.  A vaccine is a biological preparation that provides active acquired immunity to a particular disease. Totally 26 Vaccines are available authorized by the WHO. Different Vaccines are Measles vaccines, Rubella vaccines, Cholera vaccines, Meningococcal disease vaccines, Influenza va... Read More

Toxicity of pesticides on health and environment

Image Public policy is regularly shaken by health crises or unexpected discoveries; future directions in toxicology assessment are therefore urgently needed. This research topic focuses on the toxic effects of pesticides associated with large scale cultivation of genetically modified (GM) plants. Pesticides which are either already commercialized, either awaiting federal approval, include formulations based on glyphosate, glufosinate, bromoxynil, 2,4-D, dicamba, imidazolinones, sulfonylurea, as well as Bt toxins. Additionally, seeds are generally coated with neonicotinoids insecticides. ... Read More

Behavior, Anatomy, Physiology and Clinical Biomarkers of Pupil

Image The pupil response is more than a simple light evoked reflex. At any moment, the pupil diameter reflects the activity of complex neurological pathways to changes in the environmental illumination and autonomic activity through parasympathetic and sympathetic innervations. A mobile pupil also modulates retinal illumination and enhances visual performance by affecting depth of focus and optical aberrations. This Research Topic will therefore highlight the latest research on external and internal influences on pupillary responses in humans and animal models. Studies of afferent pathways can in... Read More

Applications for Toxicity Prediction

Image A plethora of natural and synthetic chemical compounds are industrially distributed around the world. However, shockingly, the majority of these chemicals have not been comprehensively evaluated for their safety and toxicity due to limitations of standard toxicity testing approaches. Such limitations are due to these methods being performed by in vivo or in vitro analysis for each chemical using experimental analysis or cultured cells, which are often costly and time-consuming processes. Thus, there is a dire need for novel toxicity testing approaches that are more time- a... Read More

Immunology Education at present and future prediction

Image The explosion of basic and applied immunology in the first decades of the 21st century has brought forth new opportunities and challenges for immunology education at all academic levels, from professional to undergraduate, medical, graduate and post-graduate instruction. Moreover, developing methods and techniques for educating general audiences on the importance and benefits of immunology will be critical for increasing public awareness and support. One major immediate challenge consists in accommodating, within the confines of traditional immunology curricula, a body of kno... Read More

Retinopathy and Retinal Immunology

Image It has been over 70 years since Peter Medawar called the eye immune privileged based on the prolonged survival of allographs within the ocular microenvironment. Over this time, we have come to understand that this unique relationship between the ocular microenvironment and the immune system involves both local and systemic mechanisms of immune suppression and tolerance. This includes a physical blood barrier and lack of direct lymphatics. There are molecules both soluble and membrane-bound expressed by the cells of the ocular microenvironment that suppress immune cells from responding to tr... Read More

Toxicology of Protein Kinase Inhibitors

Image Protein kinase inhibitors (KIs) revolutionized the landscape of cancer treatment. The number of regulatory agency-approved KIs continues to grow, and their clinical indications are rapidly expanding to non-cancerous diseases. KIs are very often used in the management of lifelong chronic diseases. However, serious adverse reactions, particularly hepatotoxicity and cardiotoxicity, have significantly limited the clinical benefit of KIs. As of July 2019, over a quarter (13 out of 49) of FDA-approved small molecule KIs carry boxed warnings for various life-threatening toxicities in their label, ... Read More

Radiation Oncology: Machine Learning with Big Data

Image Radiation oncology is uniquely positioned to harness the power of big data as vast amounts of data are generated at an unprecedented pace for individual patients in imaging studies and radiation treatments worldwide. The big data encountered in the radiotherapy clinic may include patient demographics stored in the electronic medical record (EMR) systems, plan settings and dose volumetric information of the tumors and normal tissues generated by treatment planning systems (TPS), anatomical and functional information from diagnostic and therapeutic imaging modalities (e.g., CT, PET, MRI and k... Read More

Eye: In Parkinson's Disease & Alzheimer’s Disease

Image There are increasing lines of evidence showing that neurodegeneration in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and Parkinson’s disease (PD) is not limited to the brain but also occurs in the retina. Consequently, AD/PD patients can gradually develop vision problems. This neurological and ophthalmological disorder creates a pressing need for developing therapy to treat vision impairment in AD/PD. On the other hand, pathophysiological changes in the retina may reflect what might happen in the same diseases in the brain. Thus retinal studies may allow us to develop quantifiable measures for the... Read More

Xenobiotic Exposure and Predictive Toxicology

Image Background: An emerging paradigm in predictive toxicology is focused on the interaction among xenobiotics, the host and the microbiome. The outcome of this interaction is an important regulator of many diseases. The microbiome consists of the indigenous microbial communities and the host environment that they inhabit. The microbiome includes microbes that are both helpful and potentially harmful, and in a healthy individual, these microbial communities coexist without problems. However, when this balance is disturbed due to the exposure of xenobiotics, dysbyosis can occur. ... Read More

Neurodegeneration & Chronic Inflammation in Eye Disease

Image Neurodegeneration & Chronic Inflammation in Eye Disease Chronic inflammation and neurodegeneration have a widely recognized role in the pathogenesis of the main retinal pathologies such as: age-related macular degeneration (AMD), diabetic retinopathy (DR) and in some idiopathic vitreoretinal disorders such as epiretinal membranes. However the exact mechanism through which inflammation causes alteration of the retinal structure with consequent dysfunction of the retinal pigment epithelium, of neurons and ultimately of photoreceptors, is not entirely known, just... Read More

Sunlight Does Explain the Protective Effect of Outdoor Activity Against Myopia

Image “Keep myopia away! Go outdoors and play!" This is the slogan for the 21st century children as there is a mounding burden of myopia globally. Both genetics and environment play a role in myopia. Time spent outdoors has recently emerged as a protective factor against myopia and this relationship has been studied extensively for more than a decade (refer reviews by French et al. Ngo et al. Sherwin et al. through cross-sectional and cohort studies as well as the randomized controlled trials. Results fr... Read More

Part of Microbiology

Image Part of Microbiology Eukaryotes Most living things that are visible to the naked eye in their adult form are eukaryotes, including humans. However, many eukaryotes are also microorganisms. Unlike bacteria and archaea, eukaryotes contain organelles such as the cell nucleus, the Golgi apparatus and mitochondria in their cells. The nucleus is an organelle that houses the DNA that makes up a cell's genome. DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid) itself is arranged in complex chromosomes. Mitochondria are organelles vital in metabolism as they are th... Read More

Microbiology

Image Microbiology Applied Microbiology is a peer-reviewed Open Access Journal, encourages on-going international research and articles related to but not limited to Medical microbiology, pathogenic microbes, Pharmaceutical microbiology (antibiotics, enzymes, vitamins, vaccines) Industrial microbiology, Microbial biotechnology, Plant pathology, Veterinary, Food, Agricultural, Soil, Environmental Microbiology, etc. It’s our privilege to recite you... Read More

Aging and Immunology

Image Aging represents a paradox of immunodeficiency and inflammation (inflamm-aging) and autoimmunity. Over the lifespan there are changes in the architecture and functioning of the immune system often termed “Immunosenescence”. Recently, there have been major developments in understanding the cellular and molecular bases, and genetic and epigenetic changes, in innate and the adaptive immune system during aging. Limited longitudinal studies have begun to reveal biomarkers of immune aging, which are recognized as an “immune risk profile” (IRP) predicting mortalit... Read More

Vitiligo and Immunology

Image Vitiligo results from a selective loss of epidermal melanocytes and affects around 0.5% of the world population. Both sexes are affected, and there are no apparent differences in rates of occurrence according to phototype or ethnicity. Vitiligo is a disfiguring disease that remains a therapeutic challenge. A better understanding of the physio-pathology of this disease and the testing of new promising targeted therapies remains of utmost importance for patients. Vitiligo is a complex disease, involving a combination of genetic and environmental factors, together with metabolic and ... Read More

CX3CR1 Contributes to Nasal Neutrophilia in Airways Allergy: Novel Role for IL-8 in Inducing CX3CR1Expression by Neutrophils

Image CX3CR1 Contributes to Nasal Neutrophilia in Airways Allergy: Novel Role for IL-8 in Inducing CX3CR1Expression by Neutrophils Background: CX3CR1 is involved in promotion of inflammation by recruiting inflammatory cells to the inflamed tissue. However, no reports studied their expression by neutrophils infiltrating the nasal tissue in chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) patients with or without associated airways allergy. Objectives: Our objectives were to evaluate the expression of CX3CR1 by neutrophil infiltrating the inflamed ... Read More

Testis Morphologic Assessment in Patients undergoing Sex Reassignment Surgery with Gender Dysphoria

Image Testis Morphologic Assessment in Patients undergoing Sex Reassignment Surgery with Gender Dysphoria Purpose: To study the morphologic changes to testicular architecture in response to estrogen therapy in gender dysphoric patients undergoing sexual reassignment surgery. Materials and methods: A retrospective morphologic review of testicular architecture was performed on ten cases of male-to-female sex reassignment surgery testis from the University of Illinois Hospital and Health Sciences system. Cases were from adult males undergoing... Read More

Advancements and Innovations in Automation and Artificial Intelligence

Image Artificial Intelligence Artificial Intelligence is a region of software engineering that emphasises the production of intelligent machines that work and respond like people. Artificial intelligence is expert in studying how human brain thinks, learn, decide, and work while trying to solve a problem, and then using the products of this study as a source of increasing smart software and systems. In the real life, the knowledge has some... Read More

Vaccines Paradigms: Global Strength to Disease

Image Vaccines and Immunization When a Vaccine is injected into the body is called as Vaccination. The reaction of the body after administration of vaccine is Immunization. The vaccine stimulates the immune system, recognizes the diseases, protects the body from infection and prevents the spread of diseases to others. Actually, the Vaccination and Immunization meanings are not same but they are often used interchangeably. Human Vaccines-Infect... Read More

Neuroethics

Image Neuroethics refers to two related fields of study: what the philosopher Adina Roskies has called the ethics of neuroscience, and the neuroscience of ethics.The ethics of neuroscience comprises the bulk of work in neuroethics. It concerns the ethical, legal and social impact of neuroscience, including the ways in which neurotechnology can be used to predict or alter human behavior and "the implications of our mechanistic understanding of brain function for society... integrating neuroscientific knowledge with ethical and social thought". Bra... Read More

Prevalence of Enterobius Vermicularis

Image OXY-URIASIS is one of the most prevalent parasitic diseases in children and over 200 million people on Earth are infected. Aim of this study was an investigation of prevalence of Enterobius Vermicularis in Kermanshah city nurseries. This was a cross sectional (descriptive - analysis) study. Clustered Random Sampling was done, data was collected by questionnaire. According to the prevalence of this disease, Sample size was a determined 92 subjects in Kermanshah city nurseries. Samples were examined in the Kermanshah reference laboratory of parasitology. CHI-SQUARE test was used to determine ... Read More

Relationship between daily spiritual experiences and fear of death in hemodialysis patients

Image In Iran, Deaths due to coronary artery diseases is very increasing. And unfortunately every year due to lack of physical activity and decreased cardio activity the age group of this disease is decreasing in a way that now this disease is seen in the youth, And one of basic tools is changing the patients lifestyle in the educational program as a part of the treatment plan. This study has been done with the aim to compare the traditional training methods based on Health Belief Models on exercise performance in patients with myocardial infarction. In this Quasi- Experimental Research 74 patien... Read More

Development of an Antiviral Screening Protocol: One-Stone-Two-Birds

Image As prophylactic therapies and vaccines against viral infections continue to improve, drug resistant strains are continuing to arise; therefore it is imperative to develop new therapeutics against these diseases. For highly pathogenic viruses, such as Ebola and H5N1 influenza virus, the need for antivirals is even more urgent due to limited therapeutics against these viruses. Furthermore, the high pathogenicity of such viruses often makes it difficult to work with such agents. In this report, we describe a protocol called “One-stone-two-birds” which provides a safe and efficient ... Read More

Infectious Full-Length Clones of Calibrachoa Mottle Virus (CbMV)

Image Full-length cDNA clones derived from genomic RNA (gRNA) and subgenomic RNAs (sgRNAs) of Calibrachoa mottle virus (CbMV) were constructed under the control of the T7 RNA promoter and ligated into plasmid pUC-18. The capped and uncapped in vitro transcripts, synthesized from full length genomic cDNA clone pUC-CbMV-FL generated chlorotic local lesions on mechanical inoculated Chenopodium quinoa within 10 to 15 days post-inoculation. The progeny virions recovered from inoculated symptomatic leaves had the same morphological properties as the parental virions. These virions are also reacted posi... Read More

Advancements in Ophthalmology

Image Ophthalmology is a stream of medicine dealing with eye and visual system. Ophthalmology completely relates to both internal visual system and external parts such eye ball, eye lid, eye lashes and tear formation. Treatments include right from external eye care to using medical, surgical and rehabilitate methods to treat various eye related problems. Many specialis... Read More

Perspective in the Field of Ophthalmology

Image Our aim is to provide the surgeons, refractive surgeons, optometrists, opticians, young researchers, students, industrial delegates and anyone professionally involved in study of Ophthalmology and Eye care and surgery with an opportunity to learn about the complexity of the disease, discuss interventional procedures, look at new and advanced cataract removal prac... Read More

Advances in the Multidisciplinary Management of Oral Cancer

Image Oral cancer occurs globally in approximately 355,000 people a year, with a progressive increase in the last decades. Nonetheless, diagnosis, tumor staging, treatment, and survival results have not significantly improved over the last 50 years. Recent advances in basic and translational research allowed to better clarify the etiopathogenetic mechanisms initiating and driving oral cancer, with a particular focus on its interrelation with the surrounding microenvironment and immune contexture. On this conceptual basis, a comprehensive analysis of individual patients through prec... Read More

Immunotherapy of Chronic Viral Infections that Cause Cancer

Image Every year at least 1.3 million of newly diagnosed cancers, accounting for 12% of all diagnosis worldwide, are a direct consequence of different oncogenic viral infections. These chronic viral infections and viral-associated malignancies are present in all geographic locations but are more prevalent in developing countries. However, their prevalence in developed countries is increasing due to multiple factors including iatrogenic immunosuppression, HIV infection, changes in sexual practices and immigration patterns. Even though oncogenic viruses are genetically diverse ‐ wi... Read More

Cancer Immunotherapy: lights and shadows

Image Cancer immunotherapy has recently emerged as the fourth treatment modality, in addition to surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. These advances are the result of important discoveries in the field of regulation of the immune response, specially on the mechanisms which turn "on" and "off" immune responses. A disease which has proved to be a canonical model to test therapeutic immunotherapy approaches is the immunogenic cutaneous melanoma. So far, "passive" immunotherapy with monoclonal antibodies has outpaced "active" immunotherapy with antitumor vac... Read More

Rheumatoid joint inflammation diagnosis and its treatment

Image Rheumatoid joint inflammation is analyzed dependent on the aftereffects of joint x-beams and a rheumatoid factor test (which is sure in about 70% of individuals with side effects). It might likewise be found in those without rheumatoid joint inflammation, so it normally isn't utilized alone for a conclusion. An increasingly explicit blood test known as the counter cyclic citrullinated peptide (against CCP) may likewise be requested. Individuals who are certain for against CCP for the most part have rheumatoid joint pain. The erythrocyte sedimentation rate (sed rate) ... Read More

Rheumatoid Arthritis and its new drugs

Image Rheumatoid joint pain is a long haul, immune system malady that causes joint growing (aggravation), torment, redness, warmth, and firmness. The wrists, fingers, knees, feet, and lower legs are most ordinarily included. The reason for rheumatoid joint inflammation isn't known. Rheumatoid joint inflammation for the most part influences joints on the two sides of the body similarly, and grows gradually after some time. It can likewise influence different organs in the body. Beginning treatment at analysis can assist with constraining changeless joint devastation. About 1%, or 1 o... Read More

Impact of progression at baseline and on-treatment progression events in three large prostate cancer trials

Image Impact of progression at baseline and on-treatment progression events in three large prostate cancer trials Abstract Background There is a discussion about the optimal timing to initiate or switch treatment in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). This post hoc analysis of 3 large trials for men with mCRPC examined the influence of the type of progression at initiation of first-line chemotherapy, as well as the type of progression during treatment, on treatment outcomes. Met... Read More

Eukaryotes –Part of Microbiology

Image Eukaryotes –Part of Microbiology Eukaryotes Most living things that are visible to the naked eye in their adult form are eukaryotes, including humans. However, many eukaryotes are also microorganisms. Unlike bacteria and archaea, eukaryotes contain organelles such as the cell nucleus, the Golgi apparatus and mitochondria in their cells. The nucleus is an organelle that houses the DNA that makes up a cell's genome. DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid) itself is arranged in complex chromosomes. Mitochondria are organelles vital in metabol... Read More

Evolution - Applied Microbiology

Image Evolution - Applied Microbiology Applied Microbiology is a peer-reviewed Open Access Journal, encourages on-going international research and articles related to but not limited to Medical microbiology, pathogenic microbes, Pharmaceutical microbiology (antibiotics, enzymes, vitamins, vaccines) Industrial microbiology, Microbial biotechnology, Plant pathology, Veterinary, Food, Agricultural, Soil, Environmental Microbiology, etc. It’s our pri... Read More

Musculoskeletal burden and its effects

Image Working stance is the stance received by a worker while performing work assignments. It very well may be adjusted regularly, or a solitary stance can be continued for an all-inclusive time. The human body can be spoken to by sections, for example, an arm, lower arm, thigh or trunk, associated with different portions by joints. Working stance can be portrayed by points between body sections. Musculoskeletal burden identified with word related work is regularly a reason in the improvement of business related musculoskeletal issue (MSDs). The danger of creating musculoskeletal issue ... Read More

Effect of organised cervical cancer screening on cervical cancer mortality in Europe

Image Effect of organised cervical cancer screening on cervical cancer mortality in Europe Abstract Background Organised cervical cancer (CC) screening programmes are delivered in many different ways across the European Union and its regions. Our aim was to systematically review the impact of these programs on CC mortality. Methods Two independent reviewers identified all eligible studies investigating the effect of organised screening on CC mortality in Europe. Six databases incl... Read More

The What and Why of Forensic Entomology?

Image What is an Insect? It may sound like a simple question, but there’s some confusion about what an insect is and what is not. There are certain standards by which we determine what insects are creatures. To start with, they need to have an exoskeleton which is common to all arthropods. In order for the arthropod to be an insect, the specimen needs to have six legs; this is generally what separates them from other arthropods. They have also broken down into three distin... Read More

Animal ethics

Image Animal ethics is a term used in academia to name the branch of ethics that examines human-animal relationships, the moral consideration of animals and how nonhuman animals ought to be treated. The subject matter includes animal rights, ... Read More

Medical ethics

Image Medical ethics is a system of moral principles that apply values to the practice of clinical medicine and in scientific research. Medical ethics is based on a set of values that professionals can refer to in the case of any confusion or conflict. These values include the respect for autonomy, non-maleficence, be... Read More

Anionic Polysaccharides Exhibit Antiviral Activities to Vaccinia Virus

Image The aim of the present study was to characterise anti-vaccinia virus activities of anionic exopolysaccharides TK V3 isolated from cyanobacterium Arthrospira platensis and an exopolysaccharide isolated from the rhodophyt Porphyridium purpureum, respectively. These substances have previously been shown to be active against other enveloped viruses. We determined the in vitro inhibition of GFP-expressing vaccinia virus replication of 50 % at a concentration of 0.65 µg/ ml for EPS and of 0.78 µg/ml for TK V3. Substances also had an antiviral effect against ectromelia virus which is a... Read More

Comparison of HIV-1 Viral Load between Abbott m2000 and Roche COBAS TaqMan Methods

Image Accurate quantifi cation of HIV-1 viral load (VL) is crucial for disease monitoring and management. This study was designed to compare HIV-1 VL determination between two of the major commercial real-time PCR-based methods, i.e., the Roche’s COBAS AmpliPrep/COBAS TaqMan HIV-1 Test and the Abbott Real Time HIV-1 Assay. Out of 308 paired plasma tested, 85.1% (262/308) of test results were concordant with 173 samples were quantifi able for VL and 89 were “Not Detected” (ND). There was a strong overall correlation of the quantifi able VL between the two methods (R2 =0.952). Com... Read More

Validity of Euro Score in Patients

Image European score system has been used to predict the morbidity and mortality rate of the patients who underwent open heart surgery. This is an attempt to evaluate the validity of Euro SCORE in off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery at Afshar Heart Center. 367 consecutive patients who underwent primary or redo off-pump CABG in Afshar Heart Center during October 2010 to March 2011 were collected. The Euro SCORE forms were filled and incidence of post-operative morbidity and mortality were determined. The Patients were categorized into 4 groups of low-risk (logistic score: 0-1.99), medium-risk ... Read More

Effect of Dimethoate on mortality

Image The acute toxicity tests were conducted during certain intervals in various concentrations of Dimethoate. The physical and chemical analyses of water were carried out by following APHA methods. While treating with Dimethoate, the percentage of fish mortality was assessed during 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours. The estimated lethal concentration values along with 95% confidence limits of Dimethoate were found to be 17.532 mg/l (16.781-19.877), 17.321 mg/l (16.521-18.134), 16.721 mg /l (16.063-17.952), 16.350 mg/l (15.388-17.143), mg/l for 24, 48, 72, and 96 h, respectively. In sub lethal and lethal ... Read More

Giant Lipoma of the Shoulder: A Conundrum in a Child

Image Giant Lipoma of the Shoulder: A Conundrum in a Child Lipomas are the most common soft tissue tumors that are encountered in clinical practice; however, the giant lipomas are extremely uncommon and are entities of great concern as they can often create a diagnostic dilemma and therapeutic challenge owing to their size, location and their close relationship with other benign and malignant mesenchymal neoplasms. These tumors are rarer in children as compared to the adults, with very few cases reported in the surgical literature worldwide. We herein present a case of a g... Read More

Enhanced Expression of Robo4 Ameliorates LPS Induced Acute Lung Injury in Mice through Binding to Rhoa

Image Enhanced Expression of Robo4 Ameliorates LPS Induced Acute Lung Injury in Mice through Binding to Rhoa Robo4 maintains the barrier function of the mature vascular network by inhibiting endothelial permeability induced by pro-angiogenic factor and the function of Robo4 was tissue specific. The aim of this study was to investigate the role and signaling pathways of Robo4 in pulmonary endothelial permeability in Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) induced acute lung injury (ALI) in mice. Mice were challenged by intra-peritoneal (IP) injection of LPS (15 mg/kg) 48 h after ... Read More

Applications of Microbiology

Image Applications of Microbiology While some fear microbes due to the association of some microbes with various human diseases, many microbes are also responsible for numerous beneficial processes such as industrial fermentation (e.g. the production of alcohol, vinegar and dairy products), antibiotic production and act as molecular vehicles to transfer DNA to complex organisms such as plants and animals. Scientists have also exploited their knowledge of microbes to produce biotechnologically important enzymes such as Taq polymerase, reporter genes for use in other gene... Read More

Birth of Applied Microbiology

Image Birth of Applied Microbiology Applied Microbiology is a peer-reviewed Open Access Journal, encourages on-going international research and articles related to but not limited to Medical microbiology, pathogenic microbes, Pharmaceutical microbiology (antibiotics, enzymes, vitamins, vaccines) Industrial microbiology, Microbial biotechnology, Plant pathology, Veterinary, Food, Agricultural, Soil, Environmental Microbiology, etc. It’s our privil... Read More

Oesophageal Perforation Management in A Tertiary Care Hospital

Image Recognition of oesophageal injury is often delayed due to its protean manifestations. Principles of management are: control of sepsis and contamination by diversion and/ or drainage, nutrition, broad spectrum antibiotics and restoration of continuity. Age, general condition of the patient, aetiology, the anatomical location and size of perforation, early versus delayed presentation, clinical condition of the patient, underlying oesophageal disease and other associated co-morbid medical conditions are important determinants of the outcome. Primary repair is the gold standard treatment in ear... Read More

Clinicopathological profile of primary mediastinal masses-Our experience

Image The mediastinum starts from thoracic inlet superiorly and up to the diaphragm inferiorly, bounded laterally by both the pleura. It’s further divided into anterior, middle and posterior mediastinum to categorize the tumor and diseases of mediastinum according to their site and location. A variety of tumor and cysts occur in the mediastinum and affect people of all ages. Primary mediastinal tumors are rare representing 3% of all tumors within the chest with an average incidence of 8 cases seen per year2-4. Neoplastic masses can be both benign and malignant in nature and can be primary o... Read More

Definition of Potential Targets in Mycoplasma pneumoniae

Image Whole genome sequencing technology provided expensive information for the identifi cation of new therapeutic targets in pathogens over and above human genome. Subtractive genomic approach is extremely informative technique to identify the potential targets, which are expected to be essential genes or proteins in pathogen but absent in host, which can be used as drug target. Besides it uncharacterized proteins, which are present on the exposed surface of pathogen, may also be consider as drug target. In present study subtractive genomic approach has been used to identify therapeutic target i... Read More

Off Label Antiviral Therapeutics for Henipaviruses

Image A study on the prevalence of common intestinal parasitic diseases with a high carriage rate within the global population in Senegal was conducted among HIV-infected persons. A systematic parasitological stool test from 150 patients HIV infected showed a low carriage rate10.6% (16/150). The following parasites were isolated: Entamoeba coli 4% (6/150), Ascaris lumbricoides 2.6% (4/150) and Trichuris trichiura 1.3% (2/150). The 31-50 age group was the most affected one. The carriage rate stood at 93.3% among patients with a CD4 T-cell rate <500/ mm3, without any significant difference compa... Read More

The association of HLA-A, -B gene polymorphisms with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in Iranian patients

Image Leukemia was the first disease in which the involvement of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) was reported. MHC is a polygenic and polymorphic system containing the loci for genes coding class I, II and III of HLA (Human Leukocyte Antigen) genes which are one of the most polymorphic loci in the human genome, located on the short arm of chromosome 6 (6p23). In the present study, the relation between HLA-A,-B various alleles and ALL disease was investigated in Iranian patients. Eleven ALL cases who referred to bone marrow transplantation department of Taleghani Hospital and fifty heal... Read More

Abortion

Image Abortion is the ending of a pregnancy by removal or expulsion of an embryo or fetus before it can survive outside the uterus. An abortion that occurs without intervention is known as a miscarriage or spontaneous abortion. When deliberate steps are taken to end a pregnancy, it is called an induced abortion, or less frequently "induced miscarriage". The unmodified word abortion generally refers to an induced abortion. A similar procedure after the fetus has potential to survive outside the womb is known as a "late termination of pregnancy" or less accurate... Read More

Gene therapy

Image Gene therapy (also called human gene transfer) is a medical field which focuses on the utilization of the therapeutic delivery of nucleic acid into a patient's cells as a drug to treat disease. The first attempt at modifying human DNA was performed in 1980 by Martin Cline, but the first successful nuclear gene transfer in humans, approved by the National Institutes of Health, was performed in May 1989. Cell types: Somatic: In somatic cell gene therapy (SCGT), the therapeutic genes are transferred into any cell other than a gamete, germ cell, gametocyte, or undifferen... Read More

Exploring the recent advancements in Optometry

Image "Ophthalmic Surgery” gathering will focus on most recent and energizing developments in zones of eye medical procedures, diagnostics and late advances towards eye mind. Since the eventual fate of ophthalmology lies in research, information and innovation and its quick interpretation into the center to encourage patients 2019" is the latest slanting development in numerous fields especially in wanders like remedial, ... Read More

Death from cancer among intellectually disabled persons in Japan

Image Death from cancer among intellectually disabled persons in Japan BACKGROUND: It is important to know the causes of death of intellectually disabled (ID) persons, but there have been few reports about them in Japan. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The numbers of deaths due to the diseases of the large classification of the ICD10 (Chapters 1-14) in 2005 in 5-year age categories were obtained from the vital statistics of Japan (excluding Chapters 15-22; i.e., external causes, etc.). The numbers of persons in 2005 in 5-year... Read More

Methods of inducing breast cancer in animal models: a systematic review

Image Methods of inducing breast cancer in animal models: a systematic review Abstract Objective: Breast cancer is the second leading cause of death and the most common cancer in women. With respect to a large number of limitations in human studies, there is the need to develop experimental animal models. The purpose of this study was to investigate the development of breast cancer in laboratory animals.   Materials and Methods: This systematic review was conducted based on the PRISMA checklist. Articl... Read More

Immunoinformatics Approach-Multiple Peptides Vaccine Design from Glycoprotein E of Herpes Simplex Virus-3

Image Immunoinformatics Approach-Multiple Peptides Vaccine Design from Glycoprotein E of Herpes Simplex Virus-3 Background: Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is a common human pathogen, causing infections of orofacial mucosal surfaces (HSV-1) and genital mucosal surfaces (HSV-2). Productive infection results in the formation of vesicular lesions in the mucosal epithelia, followed by spread of the virus to sensory neurons and establishment of a latent infection that may remain for the life of the host. Material and method: All sequences of glycoprotein E [Human herpes virus 3] ... Read More

Adapting the Future Technologies to break free from Design Limitations

Image Advances in 3D Printing: Trend setting innovations for 3D printing and additive manufacturing and how these advances have changed the essence of immediate, computerized advances for fast creation of models, models and examples. In light of its wide applications, 3D printing and additive manufacturing technology has become an amazing new modern upset in the field of assembling. The advancement of 3D printing and additive fabricating a... Read More

Ocular Biomechanics

Image Traditionally, biomechanical properties of the cornea have been assessed in vitro by measuring stress-strain and Young modulus on corneal strips. In 2005, the Ocular Response Analyzer(ORA) was launched as the first commercial device claiming to provide in vivo measurements of corneal biomechanics. It utilizes a dynamic bi-directional applanation process in which two applanation pressure measurements are recorded: one while the cornea is moving inward, and the other as the cor... Read More

Congenital Rubella with Autism

Image The conventional diagnosis of congenital rubella is a rare occurrence of an obvious maternal exposure, resulting in an infant born with obvious signs such as cataracts, deafness, microcephaly or congenital heart disease. In this case, a mother with no known symptom, sign or exposure of rubella gave birth to a male infant without complication. The infant had no notable abnormalities at birth. The boy had developmentally delayed, and between the ages of five and seven years was diagnosed with autism. At the age of ten years, an MRI of his brain evidenced a remote stroke. Careful examination o... Read More

Medical Microbiology : A Guide to Microbial Infections

Image                Medical Microbiology : A Guide to Microbial Infections Applied Microbiology: Open Access is a scholarly open access journal that deals with the study of Medical microbiology the study of the pathogenic microbes and the role of microbes in human illness, Pharmaceutical microbiology the study of microorganisms that are related to the production of antibiotics, enzymes, vitamins and vaccines, Industrial microbiology the exploitation of microbes for use in industrial processes ... Read More

Latest update of Applied Microbiology

Image Latest update of Applied Microbiology LATEST RESEARCH NEWS ON SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE Transcriptional Regulatory Networks in Saccharomyces cerevisiae We have determined how most of the transcriptional regulators encoded within the eukaryote Saccharomyces cerevisiaeassociate with genes across the genome in living cells. even as maps of metabolic networks describe the potential pathways which will be employed by a cell to accomplish metabolic processes, this network of regulator-gene interactions describes poten... Read More

Bioethics and Food Restrictions by Religious Motivations: Decision Making Processes in Health

Image Bioethics reflects about much health related issues. Spiritual aspects involved in decision making are one of them. The inclusion of spiritual aspects in the Bioethics arena does not remove the secular character of bioethical reflection. In contrast, considering spiritual aspects may gave a broad and more complex understanding about motivations associated with the decisions that people make the Clinical Bioethics Committee of the Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, since 1993, had the mission to assist health professionals, patients and families in bioethical issues associated with... Read More

Determinants of Emergency Hospital Admissions among Patients in Blackpool, England: Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study

Image   Introduction: Emergency hospital admissions have been increasing in the UK over recent years [1,2]. With the predicted increase of about 53% in the proportion of people aged 65 and over in the UK between 2001 and 2013 [3] this trend is set to continue as some evidence suggest that the ageing population structure will be associated with increases in the number and frequency of emergency admissions [4]. In addition to its impact on health service resources, hospitalisation can lead to adverse consequences particularly for older people, including bre... Read More

Bacteriophages for Detection and Control Pathogens

Image Bacteriophages are viruses infecting bacteria; they are obligate intracellular parasites also require their own metabolism. Phages are excessively host-specific, capable only to infect certain classifications or even strains. Following their detection beginning in the 20th century, phages were expansively applied to treat diverse bacterial disorders in people and animals. At present, as the problem of antibiotic resistance serves ever more severe, several scientists also clinicians are observing again at bacteriophages as a therapeutic choice in the treatment of bacterial infections. The ai... Read More

Drug Discovery

Image The drug industry is one of the major players guiding the development of the medicines, biotechnology & pharmacology field. Drug discovery is the process by which drugs are discovered and designed. It is a process which aims at identifying a compound therapeutically useful in curing & treating disease. The process of drug discovery involves the identification of candidates, synthesis, characterization, screening & assays for therapeutic efficacy. Once a compound has shown its value in these tests, it will begin the process of drug development prior to clinical trials. Developing... Read More

Computational Approach Towards Designing Potential HIV Inhibitors

Image It is imperative to continue efforts to identify novel effective therapies that can assist in containing the spread of HIV. Recently acquired knowledge about the HIV entry process points to new strategies to block viral entry. For most HIV strains, the successful infection of their target cells is mainly dependent on the presence of the CD4 surface molecule, which serves as the primary virus receptor. The attachment of the viral envelope to this cellular CD4 receptor can be considered as an ideal target with multiple windows of opportunity for therapeutic intervention. Therefore, drugs that... Read More

Social Science Rules!

Image Sociology is the field of sciences worried about the investigations of the public activity of human gatherings and people. Social examinations is a term used to portray the expansive investigation of different fields which includes past and current human conduct and connections. Research &Review: Journal of Social Science on revelation and development in different angles like Sociology, Geography, Economics, History, Cultural examinations, Ethnography, Sociolinguistics, Home science, Demography, Political sciences and so forth Surveys, Mini Reviews, Short Communications, Persp... Read More

Virology & Mycology – Deadly combination

Image Virology is the investigation of infections, nucleic corrosive edifices, and proteins equipped for replication in cells of people, plants, and microorganisms. Infections usurp the jobs of the host cells wherein they are parasites to imitate themselves. Mycology is the organic branch worried about the investigation of growths, including their hereditary and biochemical properties, scientific categorization and human use as a wellspring of... Read More

SHOULD EVERY WEEK BE INFECTION CONTORWEEK?

Image Journal of Infectious Diseases & Preventive remedy is an open access, peer reviewed journal that publishes data on clinical, preventative, healing and social factors of Transmittable diseases. Journal of Infectious Diseases & Preventive medication focus on discovery and innovation in more than a few aspects of Infectious Disease Eradication, Neglected Diseases, Nosocomial Infection, Threshold Host Density, Microbiome Project, Pandemics, Mycology, Airborne Disease etc. Reviews, Mini Reviews, Short Communications, Case Reports, Perspectives/Opinions, Letters, Short Note and ... Read More

Investigating the Mucosal Immnue system Activity

Image Mucosal insusceptibility is the investigation of the invulnerable framework related with mucosal locales, for example, the gut mucosa that involves Peyer's patches (PPs), intestinal lamina propria, intestinal intraepithelium, cryptopatches, secluded lymphoid follicles in the gut antimesenteric divider, and the mesenteric lymph hubs. Mucosal layer is the sodden, internal most covering of organs and body pits, for example, the nose, mouth, lungs, and stomach. Mucosal organs emit bodily fluid which i... Read More

Eradicating the infections caused by the microorganisms

Image The microorganisms impact the endurance of each animal on the planet. Not every one of them causes sicknesses but rather larger part is totally innocuous. As Bacteria and Parasite are an extent of Microbiology, they are additionally the explanation behind existing diseases on the planet. On a very basic level, we need to understand that Disease is the point at which the contamination makes harm the person's essential capacities or frameworks. A contamination doesn't generally bring about sickness! They cause reactions as well as these moment living things are fundamental to the cycl... Read More

Meningioma with Remarkable Multiple Rosette Formation: A Diagnostically Difficult Case

Image Meningioma with Remarkable Multiple Rosette Formation: A Diagnostically Difficult Case Lipomas are the most common soft tissue tumors that are encountered in clinical practice; however, the giant lipomas are extremely uncommon and are entities of great concern as they can often create a diagnostic dilemma and therapeutic challenge owing to their size, location and their close relationship with other benign and malignant mesenchymal neoplasms. These tumors are rarer in children as compared to the adults, with very few cases reported in the surgical literature world... Read More

Bidirectional Regulation of A beta Aggregates: Immunotherapy

Image Immunotherapy: Open Access has published an article entitled “Bidirectional Regulation of A beta Aggregates: Focus on TherapeuticTargets for Alzheimer's Disease” in its volume 3 Issue 3 written by Ying Zhang, and Jiang-Tao Li.   The article explains about Bidirectional Regulation of A beta Aggregates: Focus on TherapeuticTargets for Alzheimer's Disease.   Commentary was as follows regarding Alzheimer disease (AD) is the most prevalent dementia of agingadult, characterized... Read More

About Journal of Cancer Research and Immuno-Oncology

Image Journal of Cancer Research and Immuno-Oncology is a fast-developing open access journal in the field of cancer research. It focuses on becoming one of the best peer reviewed journal in the field of cancer research. Journal of Cancer Research and Immuno-Oncology covers a broad scope for the authors to make their valuable contributions in cancer biology, tumor, radiology, metastatis, cancer immunotherapy, oncology, radiation therapy etc   This Journal provides a unique forum dedicated to scientists to express their research articles, review articles, case reports and ... Read More

About Immunotherapy: Open Access

Image Immunology is a branch of biomedical science which deals with an organism’s response towards an invading environmental factor. This process involves a complex interplay of invading particle and defence system of the host organism along with successive cascading molecular mechanism to eliminate the invading agent.   Immunotherpay: Open Access is using Editorial Tracking System for quality in review process. Editorial Tracking is an online manuscript submission, review and tracking systems used by most of the best open access journals. Review processing is perfo... Read More

Food Microbiology – main part to learn to be healthy

Image Food Microbiology – main part to learn to be healthy Applied Microbiology: Open Access is a scholarly open access journal that deals with the study of Medical microbiology the study of the pathogenic microbes and the role of microbes in human illness, Pharmaceutical microbiology the study of microorganisms that are related to the production of antibiotics, enzymes, vitamins and vaccines, Industrial microbiology the exploitation of microbes for use in industrial processes It’s our privilege to recite you as a foremost strategist in the realm o... Read More

Inviting for Articles : Applied Microbiology

Image Inviting for Articles : Applied Microbiology Applied Microbiology is a peer-reviewed Open Access Journal, encourages on-going international research and articles related to but not limited to Medical microbiology, pathogenic microbes, Pharmaceutical microbiology (antibiotics, enzymes, vitamins, vaccines) Industrial microbiology, Microbial biotechnology, Plant pathology, Veterinary, Food, Agricultural, Soil, Environmental Microbiology, etc. It’s our privilege to recite you as a foremost strategist in the realm of research and invite... Read More

Diverse Diagnosis of a Single Sinonasal Mass and how was Mystery Solved

Image Diverse Diagnosis of a Single Sinonasal Mass and how was Mystery Solved Abstract Background: Although the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses occupy a relatively small anatomical space, they are the site of origin of some of the more complex, histologically diverse group of tumours in the entire human body. Carcinomas of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses account for 0.2-0.8% of all malignant neoplasms and 3% of those occurring in the head and neck. Sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma is a very rare tumour with fewe... Read More

Multifocal Angiosarcoma of the Scalp: Review of the Literature and Report of Two Cases

Image Multifocal Angiosarcoma of the Scalp: Review of the Literature and Report of Two Cases Abstract Cutaneous angiosarcoma of the head and neck is a rare disease with a very difficult treatment. We report two cases of patients with cutaneous angiosarcoma of the scalp and a review of the literature. Both patients were female and their average age was 70.3 years. In the two cases, the clinical presentation of the angiosarcoma was a multifocal tumor of the scalp with bleeding and ulceration. One of the patients had regional lymph node metastas... Read More

Innovative Studies on Artificial Intelligence

Image The Artificial Intelligence is intended to present within a single forum all of the developments in the field of multi-sensor, multi-source, multi-process information fusion and thereby promote the synergism among the many disciplines that are contributing to its growth. Abstracts are invited on the various topics like Data/Image, Feature, Decision, and Multilevel Fusion, Multi-classifier/Decision Systems, Multi-Look Temporal Fusion, Multi-Sensor, Multi-Source... Read More

Exploring the Perspective in the Field of Ophthalmology

Image Our aim is to provide the surgeons, refractive surgeons, optometrists, opticians, young researchers, students, industrial delegates and anyone professionally involved in study of Ophthalmology and Eye care and surgery with an opportunity to learn about the complexity of the disease, discuss interventional procedures, look at new and advanced cataract removal prac... Read More

Instructions for Authors for submitting Manuscript to Cancer Research and Immuno-Oncology

Image Journal of Cancer Research and Immuno-Oncology brings articles in all areas related to cancer immunotherapy, immunotherapy, tumor immunology, necrosis, nucleic acid research, immune suppression, immunosurveillance, tumor immunity,  immunotherapies, metastatic cancer, immune system, chemotherapy, etc.   Journal of Cancer Research and Immuno-Oncology is a fast-developing open access journal in the field of cancer research. It focuses on becoming one of the best peer reviewed journal in the field of cancer research. Journal of Cancer Research and Immuno-Oncology c... Read More

Journal of Clinical Research and Bioethics have Exclusive Offer “Free Annual Publication with One Time Membership Fee.”

Image Journal of Clinical Research and Bioethics(ISSN: 2155-9627) has announced Annual Membership with exclusive discount on article processing charge to commemorate on its Anniversary. The Journal Journal of Clinical Research and Bioethics is an Open access academic journal that encompasses a wide range of current research on General ethics,  Animal ethics, Health Care, Human Experimentatio... Read More

Anatomy of Iranian species Teucrium polium

Image Teucrium (Lamiaceae) is a large and polymorphic genus distributed mainly in the Europe, North Africa and in the temperate parts of Asia. In Iran, 12 species are native. In this study, the anatomical features of the leaf and stem Teucrium polium are investigated. T. polium belonging to sect. Polium is a perennial herb growing on Lorestan province. The anatomical studies on T. polium revealed that the stem shares the general characteristics of the Labiatae family. The leaves clearly exhibit xeromorphy due to features such as the thick cuticle layer, thick outer epidermal cell wall, a high den... Read More

Seed coat morphology of the genus Juncus L.

Image The seed morphology of six species of the genus Juncus L. (Juncaceae), involving wild annuals and perennials was studied in Northeast of Iran using Light and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Seed morphology (light microscope) of the investigated species exhibits certain variations in shape, size and surface ornamentation. Results of SEM analysis reveals that there are different patterns of seed surface. Seed shape and surface structure exhibit some diversity among taxa indicating systematic significance in species differentiation. An identification key to the investigated taxa is provide... Read More

Antiviral Activity of Emetine Dihydrochloride

Image Dengue fever has become a global concern as dengue infections are prevalent in the tropics and the subtropics, and can lead to a severe life-threatening illness. Currently, there is a widespread interest to search for vaccine or antiviral therapy to combat DENV infection. In this study, we have identified emetine dihydrochloride with potent antiviral activity against DENV infection. Emetine was also shown to inhibit DENV replication consistently in all the dengue serotypes. Experiments were designed to define the stage of viral replication cycle at which emetine blocked DENV infection. Emet... Read More

Cardiovascular Manifestation of HIV

Image HIV infection is a leading health problem across the entire world, including United States. Recent advances in medicine have led to a significant decline in mortality associated with HIV infection and hence increased life expectancy in HIV-infected individuals. Cardiovascular complications represent an increasingly important health concern in HIV-infected population especially after the introduction of anti-retroviral therapy. Numerous research studies have demonstrated the increased prevalence of cardiovascular disease in HIV infected individuals. The etiology of the preponderance of cardi... Read More

Issues and Perspectives in Psoriasis Management

Image Issues and Perspectives in Psoriasis Management Psoriasis is recognized as a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease caused by genetics, the immune system and environmental factors with inherent aberrations in the skin in the form of either consistently excess proliferation of cellular constituents, particularly the epidermis, keratinocytes to hyperproliferate and perpetuate the disease process. Psoriasis varies in severity from small, localized patches to complete body coverage. These skin patches are typically red, dry, itchy and scaly. Humans lose five thousand million skin cel... Read More

Pathophysiology of Concurrent Trauma and Exsanguination

Image Trauma continues to remain the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the developed countries. Hemorrhage is the second most common cause of death after trauma, only outnumbered by traumatic brain injury. Exsanguinating hemorrhage is the most common cause of mortality in the first hour of arrival to a trauma center and accounts for almost half of deaths in the first 24 h. In addition,  about  20-40%  of  trauma  deaths  that  occur after  hospital admission  usually  involve  massive  hemorrhage,  in  which  dea... Read More

Instructions for Authors for Submission Manuscripts- Transcriptomics: Open Access

Image TranscriptLongdom Publishing is a total set of transcripts in a given organism and referred to as an expression profiling that examines the expression level of mRNAs in a given cell population. TranscriptLongdom Publishing includes high-throughput techniques based on DNA microarray. TranscriptLongdom Publishing:Open Access Journal is at higher echelons that enhance the intelligence and information dissemination on topics closely related to TranscriptLongdom Publishing. They provide a uni... Read More

Reflections on Clinical Ethics

Image During the course of my career as a child neurologist and faculty member of the Johns Hopkins Berman Bioethics Institute, I have developed a familiarity with the various moral philosophies: Utilitarian, Aristotelian, Kantian, but have found that they rarely enter my thinking or language as I make difficult clinical decisions at the bedside. They seem much like the field of biochemistry, useful as background, but rarely of use at the bedside. I am clearly a Utilitarian clinician striving to produce the greatest good for the greatest number, but that number is always constrained to the indivi... Read More

International Biomedical Research and Research Ethics Training in Developing Countries

Image Background: In recent years, international research collaborations have been growing rapidly. Multinational pharmaceutical companies and academic institutions have expanded their research to developing countries. This in part is driven by the increased awareness of health as a global issue, the challenges imposed by new and resurgent global epidemics, the increased demand for new treatments, and practical and financial considerations of the pharmaceutical i... Read More

Ovarian Cancer - The Silent Killer

Image Ovarian Cancer - The Silent Killer Abstract Ovarian cancer is heterogeneous, multigenetic and epigenetic abnormalities and lethal among all other gynecological women malignancies amongst women. Moreover, ovarian cancer has a distinct biology and behavior at cellular and molecular level. According to National Cancer Institute’s Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Result Program Report in 2017 the new case of ovarian cancer exacerbated to 22.4% from 11.7% in 2014. The Therapeutics use of cancer therapies has been restricted due to its nonspecific and dose limit... Read More

Journal of Tumor Research: A strategy document from the NCRI Brain Tumor CSG

Image Journal of Tumor Research: A strategy document from the NCRI Brain Tumor CSG Abstract The National Cancer Research Institute (NCRI) is a partnership of charity and government research funders whose purpose is to improve health and quality of life by accelerating progress in cancer-related research through collaboration. Under this umbrella, the NCRI Brain Tumor Clinical Studies Group is focused on improving clinical outcomes for adult patients with brain and central nervous system tumors, including those with brain metastasis from other ... Read More

Journal of Surgery and Anesthesia Announces discount on membership and extends the time to 24th of January

Image Journal of Surgery and Anesthesia is a peer reviewed, open access journal dedicated to publishing research on all aspects of surgery and anaesthesia. This journal aims to keep anaesthesiologists, anaesthetic practitioners, surgeons and surgical researchers up to date by publishing clinical & evidence based research. Journal of Surgery and Anesthesia addresses all aspects of surgery & anesthesia practice, including anesthetic administration, pharmacokinetics, preopera... Read More

View on Food microbes -Applied Microbiology: Open Access

Image View on Food microbes -Applied Microbiology: Open Access Applied Microbiology: Open Access is a scholarly open access journal that deals with the study of Medical microbiology the study of the pathogenic microbes and the role of microbes in human illness, Pharmaceutical microbiology the study of microorganisms that are related to the production of antibiotics, enzymes, vitamins and vaccines, Industrial microbiology the exploitation of microbes for use in industrial processes It’s our privilege to recite you as a foremost strategist in the realm of ... Read More

Instructions for Authors for Submission Manuscripts :Applied Microbiology

Image Instructions for Authors for Submission Manuscripts :Applied Microbiology Applied Microbiology is a peer-reviewed Open Access Journal, encourages on-going international research and articles related to but not limited to Medical microbiology, pathogenic microbes, Pharmaceutical microbiology (antibiotics, enzymes, vitamins, vaccines) Industrial microbiology, Microbial biotechnology, Plant pathology, Veterinary, Food, Agricultural, Soil, Environmental Microbiology, etc. It’s our privilege to recite you as a foremost strategist in the... Read More

Acute Renal Failure

Image ARF is common in the setting of critical illness and is correlated with a high risk of mortality. The aim of this study was to determine the risk factors and short term outcome of Acute Renal Failure (ARF) in intensive care unit (ICU). This study was designed as an analytic cross-sectional study. First, 201 Patients who hospitalized in the ICU enrolled in this study. ARF was defined as a plasma creatinine levels according to Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN) criteria.The assessed risk factors of ARF were age, gender, Cause of hospitalization in the ICU, Imaging with Contrast agents, mechan... Read More

Solpugidophobia : Real or Illusion

Image Having fear and anxiety is necessary in any animal, for their survival. In humans, fear cause they behave reliable and safe. The nature of anxieties and fears changes with increasing age and learning knowledge. Fear or phobia of animals such as snakes, Zoophobia, Herpetophobia, scorpions, arachnids, Archnophobia, insects and Entomophobia is common. Entomophobia is an unusual fear of insects that may cause psychological problems in individuals at critical situation, which needs effective treatment. If these feelings of fear and anxiety be stable, may affect people's mental health. Anxiet... Read More

Cerebellar Ataxia in HIV Patient

Image Acute cerebellar ataxia (ACA) is a disorder that occurs when the cerebellum becomes inflamed or damaged. The cerebellum is the area of the brain responsible for controlling gait and muscle coordination. The term ataxia refers to a lack of fine control of voluntary movements. Here we present a case report of a rare presentation of efavirenz associated cerebellar ataxia in a patient of HIV/AIDS. Ataxia in a patient of HIV is generally secondary to an infectious, vascular or neoplastic cause. Most infections are opportunistic and unlikely to occur when CD4 levels are adequate. Focal ... Read More

Cloning, Expression and Purification of Recombinant Forms

Image Full length Ebolavirus glycoprotein (GP) intersperses the outer most lipid membrane to form spikes, where it mediates virus-host cell interaction. A secretory form of GP (sGP) is also produced by all 5 known Ebolavirus species. These attributes make GP an ideal target for research and development (R and D) of Ebolavirus and possibly pan-filovirus targeted Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDTs), bio-therapeutics and vaccines. Prior cloning of recombinant Zaire ebolavirus (EBOV) GP has majorly used insect (baculovirus ) ex... Read More

Rheumatology and its world

Image A recently created apparatus to break down the cell and sub-atomic profiles of synovial tissue and fringe blood may help open signs about rheumatoid joint inflammation and lead to better treatments. Rheumatoid joint pain (RA) is an interminable ailment that causes torment, firmness, expanding, and constraint in the movement and capacity of different joints. In spite of the fact that joints are the chief body parts influenced by RA, aggravation can create in different organs too. An expected 1.3 million Americans have RA, and the illness regularly influences ladies twice as frequen... Read More

Tranexamic Acid and Major Spine Surgery Trends and Controversies

Image The beneficial role and efficacy of Tranexamic Acid in reducing perioperative blood loss and blood transfusion equirements in spine surgery is being established. Tranexamic Acid is an anti fibrinolytic agent traditionally used tolessen perioperative blood  loss.  Tranexamic Acid can be administered orally, intramuscularly, intravenously ortopically. Tranexamic Acid studies in spine surgery have limited patient enrolment. Most of the reported studies have mixed results and difficult to interpret. The efficacy of anti fibrinolytic agents is evident in a wide variety of surgicalproce... Read More

Bone Tumors

Image Bone Tumors Bone tumors grow when cells in the bone divide without control, forming a mass of tissue. Most bone tumors are benign, which means they are not cancer and do not spread to other areas of the body. But they may still weaken bone and lead to broken bones or cause other problems. Bone cancer destroys normal bone tissue. It may start in the bone or spread from other parts of the body (called metastasis). Benign Bone Tumors Benign tumors are more common than tumors caused by cancer. These are a few common types... Read More

Racial Differences in Hospital Stays among Patients Undergoing Craniotomy for Tumour Resection at a Single Academic Hospital

Image Racial Differences in Hospital Stays among Patients Undergoing Craniotomy for Tumour Resection at a Single Academic Hospital Study design and selection of patients We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study that included adult patients (18 years or older) who underwent craniotomy for brain tumour resection at a single academic medical centre in Los Angeles, California from March 2013 to January 2017. Patients were selected using International Classification of Diseases, 9th and 10th Revision and Current Procedural Terminology, ve... Read More

Applied Microbiology: Open Access- Invitation on Special Issues

Image Applied Microbiology: Open Access- Invitation on  Special Issues Applied Microbiology: Open Access is a scholarly open access journal that deals with the study of Medical microbiology the study of the pathogenic microbes and the role of microbes in human illness, Pharmaceutical microbiology the study of microorganisms that are related to the production of antibiotics, enzymes, vitamins and vaccines, Industrial microbiology the exploitation of microbes for use in industrial processes It’s our privilege to recite you as a foremost strategist in ... Read More

Applied Microbiology: Google scholars

Image Applied Microbiology: Google scholars Applied Microbiology is a peer-reviewed Open Access Journal, encourages on-going international research and articles related to but not limited to Medical microbiology, pathogenic microbes, Pharmaceutical microbiology (antibiotics, enzymes, vitamins, vaccines) Industrial microbiology, Microbial biotechnology, Plant pathology, Veterinary, Food, Agricultural, Soil, Environmental Microbiology, etc. It’s our privilege to recite you as a foremost strategist in the realm of research and invite you to... Read More

A keen approach for Collective Consciousness

Image The Artificial Intelligence is intended to present within a single forum all of the developments in the field of multi-sensor, multi-source, multi-process information fusion and thereby promote the synergism among the many disciplines that are contributing to its growth. Abstracts are invited on the various topics like Data/Image, Feature, Decision, and Multilevel Fusion, Multi-classifier/Decision Systems, Multi-Look Temporal Fusion, Multi-Sensor, Multi-Source... Read More

Evaluating and implementing a new Technology in vision and Ophthalmology

Image Ophthalmology is a stream of medicine dealing with eye and visual system. Ophthalmology completely relates to both internal visual system and external parts such eye ball, eye lid, eye lashes and tear formation. Treatments include right from external eye care to using medical, surgical and rehabilitate methods to treat various eye related problems. Many specialis... Read More

World-wide Ophthalmology surgical devices

Image Our aim is to provide the surgeons, refractive surgeons, optometrists, opticians, young researchers, students, industrial delegates and anyone professionally involved in study of Ophthalmology and Eye care and surgery with an opportunity to learn about the complexity of the disease, discuss interventional procedures, look at new and advanced cataract removal prac... Read More

Journal of Surgery and Anesthesia Invites Manuscripts

Image Journal of Surgery and Anesthesia is a peer reviewed, open access journal dedicated to publishing research on all aspects of surgery and anaesthesia. This journal aims to keep anaesthesiologists, anaesthetic practitioners, surgeons and surgical researchers up to date by publishing clinical & evidence based research. It would be our extreme pleasure to invite you to ... Read More

Opsoclonus Raccoon Eye in Fatal Metastatic Neuroblastoma

Image Metastatic neuroblastoma with opsoclonus raccoon eye presentation is an extremely rare condition presented in stage IV metastatic condition. Histopathology/ cytology, vanillylmandelic acid (VMA), homovanillic acid (HVA) levels and metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scanning are mainly contributors for the diagnosis of this disease. We are presenting one year male child with history of protrusion of right eye, swelling in right periauricular region, opsoclonus movements of small amplitude and periorbital ecchymosis ‘raccoon eye’. So far only infinitesimal cases has been reported in t... Read More

Machine Learning in Healthcare Data Analysis

Image In recent years, healthcare data analysis is becoming one of the most promising research areas. Healthcare includes data in various types such as clinical data, Omics data, and Sensor data. Clinical data includes electronic health records which store patient records collected during ongoing treatment. Omics data is one of the high dimensional data comprising genome, transcriptome and proteome data types. Sensor data is collected from various wearable and wireless sensor devices. To handle this raw data manually is very difficult. For analysis of data, machine learning is emerged as a signif... Read More

HIV-Associated Tuberculosis in Russia

Image The goal of the work was to study the socio-demographic and clinical profile of the patients with TB/ HIV co-infection, as well as the treatment effectiveness to understand what shortcomings in the work of TB and HIV services are needed to be corrected. A retrospective study was performed among 377 patients with dual co-infection TB/HIV between January 2015 and December 2016. TB diagnoses were based on clinical symptoms... Read More

Non-Structural Proteases as a Target of Dengue Virus

Image Dengue is a globally emerging health concern, still in preliminary stage of drug development. Many research scientists explored the dengue virus and identified its several targets that are categorized as structural and non-structural proteins, irres