Risk Factors for Febrile Seizures in Children


Risk Factors for Febrile Seizures in Children

Objective: we aimed to identify the factors associated with febrile seizures (FS) occurrence.

Methods: This was a case-control study. Sixty cases of FS were prospectively recorded and compared to 60 controls admitted for fever without seizures.   Baseline Data were collected from all consecutive patients and laboratory hematological parameters including complete blood count, serum iron, serum ferritin and zinc levels were performed prospectively the first day of admission.  The two groups were compared to identify parameters associated with FS occurrence. All statistical analysis was performed with SPSS software, version 19.

Results: The mean age was 18 ± 12.7 months in cases and 20 ± 13.9 months in controls. The consanguinity rate was significantly higher in cases than in controls (p=0.028). A positive family history of febrile seizures was found in 22 cases (36.7%) which was statistically significant as compared to controls (p=0.003). In contrast, there was no significant statistical difference noted when considering the positive family history of epilepsy (p=0.43). Gestational age, weight birth and breastfeeding duration were significantly lower in cases (p=0.002, 0.023 and <0.0001 respectively). Similarly the duration of fever was lower in cases group (10.7 ± 17.4 vs 35.6 ± 18.4 hours, p<0.001). Mean hemoglobin, serum iron, ferritin and zinc were significantly lower in cases than controls. Multivariate analysis identified four factors associated with FS occurrence:  family history of FS, duration of breast-feeding less than 6 months, rapid rise of body temperature and iron deficiency anemia.

Conclusion:  in children with personal or family history of FS. Clinicians should particularly incite breastfeeding and prevent micronutrient deficiencies, especially iron deficiency.

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